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Table 1 Summary of the reviewed studies’ characteristics

From: Systematic review and meta-analysis of public hospital efficiency studies in Gulf region and selected countries in similar settings

No. Study Publication year Country No. of hospitals Inputs Outputs Methods of analysis Second-stage Quality (%)
1 Yusefzadeh et al. [26] 2013 Iran 23 Bed, doctor, health personnel Outpatients, occupied day bed DEA NA 75
2 Ahmadkiadaliri et al. [27] 2011 Iran 19 Physician, specialist, nurses and others. bed Outpatient, inpatients days, surgeries, BOR DEA NA 83
3 Helal and Elimam [28] 2017 Saudi Arabia 270 Bed, doctors, nurses, other personnel Outpatient, inpatients, No radiology, laboratory, DEA NA 67
4 Gok and Sezen [29] 2013 Turkey 348 Bed, specialist physicians, non-SP. physicians BUR, BTR, surgery, births, outpatient inpatient days, discharge. DEA Logit regression analysis, correlation, mean difference. 92
5 Gok and Altindag [30] 2015 Turkey 251 Specialized physicians, non-sp. physicians, bed BUR, BTR, surgery, births, outpatient inpatient days, discharge. DEA, MPI correlations, mean differences 92
6 Hatam et al. [31] 2010 Iran 21 Bed, physicians. Nurses, other personnel BOR, bed, patient admissions, OBD, ALS, BTR DEA, MPI NA 62
7 Mehrtak et al. [32] 2014 Iran 18 Bed, physician, nurse, other professionals Surgeries, discharges, BOR DEA, Pabon Lasso NA 77
8 Kalhor et al. [33] 2016 Iran 54 Doctors, nurses, medical personnel, beds. Patients days, outpatient, surgery, ALS. DEA Group comparison 85
9 Rezaee and Karimdadi [34] 2015 Iran 288 Health personals, equipment, bed Inpatient, outpatient, special patients, bed, BOR DEA NA 42
10 Shahhoseini et al. [35] 2011 Iran 12 Physician, nurse, other staff, bed inpatient days, ALS, BOR, outpatient, operations DEA NA 75
11 Ozgen Narci et al. [36] 2015 Turkey 1103 Bed, specialist, general doctor, nurse, and other employees. Discharges, day-care, surgeries, outpatient, emergency care DEA Multivariate Tobit regression 69
12 Sahin and Ozcan [37] 2000 Turkey 80 Bed, specialist, general doctor, nurse, others, revolving expenditure Outpatient, discharged, hospital mortality rate DEA Mean difference 75
13 Sahin et al. [38] 2011 Turkey 352 Bed, physician, nurses, others, operational expenses. Outpatient, Inpatient, surgeries DEA, MPI NA 77
14 Jandaghi et al. [39] 2010 Iran 8 Physicians, nurse, paramedics, administrative, hospital costs Outpatient, emergency client, bed day DEA NA 58
15 Farzianpour et al. [40] 2012 Iran 16 Physicians, nurses, beds Inpatients, outpatient, ALS DEA NA 50
16 Atilgan and Caliskan [41] 2015 Turkey 332 Physician price, ancillary price, administrative price, capital price Outpatient, inpatient SFA Translog cost function specifications. Generalization assessment. 77
17 Atilgan [42] 2016 Turkey 429 Physician, ancillary, administrative staff, bed Outpatient SFA Restricted and unrestricted effect of Cobb–Douglas and Translog model specifications. Correlation 92
18 Atilgan [43] 2016 Turkey 459 Physician, ancillary, administrative staff, bed Inpatient discharge, patient days SFA DISCH and PATDAY model specification, correlations. 85
19 Sheikhzadeh et al. [44] 2012 Iran 11 Specialist physician, general professionals (physician, nurses, residents, medical team), support staff and non-medical teams, bed Emergency patients, outpatient, inpatient DEA Multiple linear regression, correlation 75
20 Mahate et al. [45] 2016 United Arab Emirates 96 Physician, dentist, nurse, midwife, pharmacist, AHP, administrator, other, bed Inpatient, outpatient, ALS DEA Correlation analysis 83
21 Abou El-Seoud [46] 2013 Saudi Arabia 20 Specialist, nurse, allied health, bed Outpatient, inpatient, laboratory, radiology DEA NA 58
22 Ramakrishnan [47] 2005 Oman 20 Bed, doctor, other professionals. Outpatient, inpatient, major, minor surgical procedures DEA, MPI Mean comparison 62
  1. DEA: Data envelopment analysis; BOR: bed occupancy rate; BUR: bed utilization rate; BTR: bed turnover rate; MPI: Malmquist productivity index; OBD: occupancy bed days; ALS: average length of stay; SFA: stochastic frontier saanalysis