Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Descriptive statistics

From: Costs of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile infections: an analysis on the effect of time-dependent exposures using routine and surveillance data

  1 2 3 4
Included in analysis with time-to-exposure restriction
All Patient with CDI relevant main diagnosis Controls Cases with nosocomial CDI
Mean/N SD Mean/N SD Mean/N SD Mean/N SD
Number of different main diagnosis groups 5878   336   296   296  
Costs (real) 5154 10,895 8278 15,235.38 24,407 36,589 34,749 44,208
Reimbursement (real) 5188 10,479 8198 14,390.32 22,641 34,479 33,515 48,453
Reimbursement-costs (real) 33 3646 − 79 4858.83 − 1765 10,584.12 − 1233 13,145
LOS 7.6 8.86 10.7 11.53 25.7 21.05 34.7 28.1
Days in hospital at the time of CDI acquisition        16.99 16.39
Age 57.70 18.68 62.70 16.46 61.04 16.48 63.61 15.76
CCI 1.90 2.80 3.48 3.32 4.37 3.54 4.83 3.36
Died 2.02%   5.05%   7.43%   11.98%  
Intensive care (h) 104.8 340.8 158.5 439.5 456.8 948.1 806 1352
Comorbidities N/%   N/%   N/%   N/%  
Number of SD (N) 6.58   9.27   14.91   20.53  
Renal failure (N.18) 7.3%   12.4%   17%   19.6%  
Heart failure (I.50) 2.7%   4.2%   6%   8.2%  
Ischemic heart disease (I.25) 10.1%   14.5%   14%   17.2%  
Diabetes (E.11) 10.9%   15.3%   15%   18.5%  
Hypertension (I.10) 31.7%   37.2%   34%   38.5%  
Atrial fibrillation and flutter (I.48) 7.8%   12.6%   15%   20.5%  
Anaemia (D.62) 5.9%   9.8%   20%   27.5%  
COPD (J.44) 4.1%   6.5%   7%   8.1%  
Cardiac/vascular implants, grafts (Z.95) 8.7%   13.4%   15%   14.7%  
Cancer (C.) 7.4%   10.2%   12%   14.3%  
Observations 204,914   51,857   1951   559  
  1. Column 1 gives the descriptive statistics for all available data. Column 2 restricts it to patients in main diagnosis groups where there is at least 1 case of CDI, all diagnosis groups in which there is no case are excluded. Column 3 shows the controls used in the regression model 2 in Table 2 below. There are 40 main diagnosis groups in which there were no suitable controls for CDI cases when applying the time-to-exposure restriction. Column 4 presents all patients with CDI that are considered in regression model 2 in Table 2. Here, CDI cases which have no suitable controls that have stayed at least as long as the time of CDI exposure are deleted. There are 3 cases of CDI for which no appropriate controls could be found. These cases were therefore excluded from the analyses shown in regression model 2 in Table 2. For 93 out of the 559 cases there were less than 4 controls available for matching. Comorbidities show the 10 comorbidities as defined in Resch (2008). CCI gives the Charlson Comorbidity Score