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Table 6 Discounted costs over a 100-year time horizon

From: Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination in Germany

Discounted costs (€ in thousands) No vaccination Bivalent vaccination Quadrivalent vaccination
Direct costs
 Vaccine (3 doses) 0 3,461,711 3,461,711
 Vaccine administration (3 doses) 0 172,614 172,614
 Screening 8,825,905 8,829,506 8,829,506
 Diagnostic follow-up of abnormal cytological screening results and observational management of CIN 1 and CIN 2 1,481,795 1,370,223 1,349,669
 Treatment of CIN 1,739,325 1,387,470 1,349,167
 Treatment of CIS 498,381 347,349 347,349
 Treatment of cervical cancer 1,233,413 1,013,599 1,013,599
 Treatment of genital warts in females 1,093,366 1,093,360 337,162
 Treatment of genital warts in males 556,932 556,924 178,880
 Total direct costs 15,429,116 18,232,756 17,039,658
Indirect costs (due to work loss)
 Treatment of CIN 1,978,965 1,618,578 1,566,941
 Treatment of CIS 338,862 234,758 234,758
 Treatment of cervical cancer 198,247 154,987 154,987
 Treatment of genital warts in females 58,878 58,878 18,156
 Treatment of genital warts in males 39,507 39,507 12,689
 Total indirect costs 2,614,460 2,106,708 1,987,532
Total costs
 Total direct and indirect costs 18,043,576 20,339,463 19,027,190
  1. CIN cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, CIS carcinoma in situ