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Table 4 Estimated regression-adjusted effect of CFS and ISF on annual out-of-pocket healthcare expenditures (in US Dollars, $)

From: The economic impact of chronic fatigue syndrome in Georgia: direct and indirect costs

All effects estimated relative to not-fatigued population, (Standard Errors in Parentheses)
  Linear Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) for Untransformed Cost (y)
  Total Expenditures ($2005) Inpatient Hospital Expenditures ($2005) Ambulatory Provider Visits ($2005) Rx Medications ($2005) OTC Medications ($2005) Other Health Costs ($2005)
Incremental Expenditures attributed to CFS 716.47*** (237.12) 22.50 (18.05) 234.35*** (84.29) 360.66** (171.28) 111.99*** (36.98) -13.03 (12.43)
Incremental Expenditures Attributed to ISF 526.88*** (189.66) 8.74 (7.18) 95.15** (38.31) 379.09** (172.37) 31.81 (26.80) 12.09 (11.35)
AIC 7164.63 4544.74 5634.06 6906.44 5196.03 6361.90
BIC 7167.03 4547.15 5636.46 6980.84 5198.44 6364.30
  Generalized Linear Model for Untransformed Cost ((y+1)) a
Incremental Expenditures attributed to CFS 946.73*** (323.22) 16.61 (14.77) 270.26** (106.17) 783.05 (641.38) 204.01* (111.16) -1.83 (1.28)
Incremental Expenditures Attributed to ISF 481.50*** (111.62) -0.88 (1.54) 119.13*** (39.69) 201.83** (102.30) 46.83 (30.66) 0.82 (1.37)
AIC 14.46 3.02 12.85 11.64 10.37 2.68
BIC -2207.85 -2754.06 -2039.43 -310.92 -925.17 -2767.13
  Two-Part Model (TPM) for Untransformed Cost (y) b
Incremental Expenditures attributed to CFS 950.18** (372.49) -51.88 (145.88) 270.08** (111.50) 1024.33* (537.26) 21.36 (51.29) -480.13*** (46.27)
Incremental Expenditures Attributed to ISF 480.91*** (117.42) -165.87 (138.01) 118.28*** (38.35) 447.29** (185.36) 25.12 (44.77) -322.10** (146.36)
AIC 289.52 144.74 459.89 559.91 564.81 83.92
BIC -2126.02 -1223.87 -1550.25 279.4912 -328.59 -2643.75
  1. * p < 0.1, ** p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.
  2. AIC: Akaike's information criterion; BIC: Schwarz's information criterion.
  3. a Generalized Linear Model with Gamma distribution and the log link function for all the categories of healthcare expenditures except for "Inpatient Hospital Expenditures" and "Other Health Costs" with inverse Gaussian distribution.
  4. b Two-part model: the first part using a logistic regression for binary indicator (healthcare users vs. no-users) and the second part using GLM for positive healthcare costs.