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Table 1 Independent variables explored for each model

From: Enhancing the comparability of costing methods: cross-country variability in the prices of non-traded inputs to health programmes

Model Variable Name [Source/Justification] Variable Description Source Expected Influence ceteris paribus
All GDP (PPP) [16] Gross Domestic Product measured in international dollars WHO Prices increases with GDP
  GDP (USD) [16] Gross Domestic Product measured in US dollars WHO Prices increases with GDP
Both Media Models Regional Dummies (WHO) Global Burden of Disease regions (geographic and economic) WHO Proximate groups may have similar market structures
  Regional Dummies (WB) World Bank regions – Income groups (economic) WB Proximate groups may have similar market structures
Printed Media Flyer Dummy Variable indicating if price is for flyer rather than poster Collected data/WHO Lower price if flyer
  Flyer Dummy * GDP Interaction term   Price of flyers may have different relation to GDP than posters if different printing technologies are used
Advertising Media Population in service area [17] Total population in area reached by a media outlet UN Stats/World Gazetteer Larger population raises price
  Predicted market size [17] Total population in area reached by a media outlet adjusted for access to media outlets UN Stats Larger population raises price
  Competition within media outlet type [23;24;25] Number of media outlets within a category (TV, Radio, Newspaper), adjusted and unadjusted for predicted market size CIA Fact book/UN Stats Greater competition would likely reduce prices (although interacts with demand for media)
  Competition with all media outlet types [23] Number of media outlets across categories (TV, Radio, Newspaper), adjusted and unadjusted for predicted market size   
  Monopoly [17]   Collected data Monopoly would likely raise prices
  Government Ownership [17]    Undetermined; depends on government pricing policy but likely would raise prices if monopoly or lower prices if in competitive market.
  Newspaper Dummy Variable indicating if price is for Newspaper rather than radio Collected data/WHO Higher price than radio
  TV Dummy Variable indicating if price is for TV rather than radio   Higher price than radio
  Dummies * GDP Interaction term   Price of media may have different relation to GDP than radio because different technologies are used
Water Access to fresh water Amount of water available per capita (annual) WB Development Indicators Higher access to water should lower price
  Total quantity of water supplied [17;33] Total amount of water supplied in a country (annual)   More demand should raise prices; may also indicate dis/economies of scale
  Island (dummy) Variable indicates if the country is a small island Data collected Increase price if an island
  Annual Rainfall [33] Total annual rainfall Country Watch Increased rainfall should decrease price of water
Electricity Fraction derived from fossil fuels Percentage of electricity generated from fossil fuels CIA Fact book Higher fossil fuel use should increases price
  Fraction imported Percentage of electricity consumed that is imported   Higher imports should increase price
  Total electricity consumption [17] Total amount of electricity consumed   More demand should raise prices; may also indicate dis/economies of scale
  Total electricity production [17] Total amount of electricity produced