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Table 7 Determinants of changes in HR-QoL and health care utilization costs

From: Changes in costs and effects after the implementation of disease management programs in the Netherlands: variability and determinants

  Model 1 Model 2
Change in EQ-5D Change in health care utilization costs
  e(b) p e(b) p
Intercept 1.04 0.744 104192.98 <0.001
EQ-5D/ 0.60 <0.001   
Costs (in 000’s) baseline    0.95 <0.001
Age 1.00 0.408 1.00 0.130
Physical activity (1–7 highest) 1.02 0.023 1.00 0.777
Change in physical activity 1.03 0.001 1.00 0.639
PACIC (1–5 highest) 0.99 0.474 1.02 0.247
Change in PACIC 1.00 0.830 1.00 0.843
Self-efficacy (1–6 highest) 1.00 0.956 0.98 0.107
Change self-efficacy 1.04 0.032 1.01 0.730
Quit smoking (1 = yes) 1.04 0.119 1.07 0.104
Multi-morbidity (1 = yes) 0.95 0.019 1.06 <0.001
COPD* (1 = yes) 0.93 <0.001 1.01 0.541
DMII* (1 = yes) 0.99 0.576 1.02 0.460
Additional payment (1 = yes) 0.99 0.468 0.99 0.491
N 820   843  
R2 patient level 0.36   0.73  
R2 DMP level 0.56   0.78  
  1. *the reference category is CVR-DMP; Note: the predictor variables COPD-DMP, DMII-DMP, and Additional payment are on the DMP level. All other variables are on the patient level.