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Table 5 Costs at baseline and differences with the follow-up measurement

From: Changes in costs and effects after the implementation of disease management programs in the Netherlands: variability and determinants

  CVR COPD DMII Total sample
  Mean at baseline (sd) Mean change (sd) Range of change across DMPs Mean at baseline (sd) Mean change (sd) Range of change across DMPs Mean at baseline (sd) Mean change (sd) Range of change across DMPs Mean change Range of change across DMPs
Primary care 610 (857) 34 (1,069) −510; +314 916 (1388) 49 (1,601) −5; +155 941 (947) −84 (1,226) −236; +88 21 (1,273) −510; +314
Outpatient hospital care 365 (778) 30 (954) −443; +259 654 (2,488) −119 (2,524) −272; +22 338 (604) 115* (809) +86; +169 −2* (1,583) −443; +259
Inpatient hospital care$ 587 (3,526) 624 (9,452) −551; +2,148 1,967 (13,256) 320 (18,563) −396; +1,162 701 (3,714) −454 (4,065) −1,211; − 220 368 (12,426) −1,211; +2,148
Medication 370 (362) 3 (261) −45; +41 857 (601) 3 (417) −2; +6 518 (482) 1 (318) −44; +34 3 (323) −45; +41
Total healthcare utilization costs 1,911 (4,102) 691 (9,812) −1,107; +2,626 4,368 (14,256) 238 (19,080) −672; +1,055 2,504 (4,015) −446 (4,444) −93; −1,066 382 (12,826) −1,107; +2,626
Travelling 74 (215) −2 (344) −113; +90 226 (1,190) −109 (1,145) −328; +47 174 (378) −22 (441) −23; −19 −37** (699) −328; +90
Productivity 1,648 (8,080) −495 (7,349) −1,988; +1,075 658 (4,724) 341 (6,603) 0; +459 216 (1,410) 188 (2,656) −210; +454 −102 (6,571) −1,988; +1,075
Total costs 3,302 (9,006) 468 (13,559) −1,893; +4,269 5,320 (15,390) 85 (20,354) −1,232; +375 3,489 (7,605) −517 (9,662) −1,591; − 167 203 (15,448) −1,893; +4,269
  1. $inpatient hospital care costs include also emergency care costs; *(p < 0.05); **(p < 0.01); the differences are calculated subtracting the costs at baseline from the costs at follow-up; primary care costs included contacts with GP, nurse practitioner, nurse, dietician, physiotherapist, podiatrist, lifestyle coach, etc.