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Table 2 Sample characteristics by disease at baseline

From: Changes in costs and effects after the implementation of disease management programs in the Netherlands: variability and determinants

  CVR COPD DMII Total sample
  Mean (sd) Mean (sd) Mean (sd) Mean (sd)
[DMP range] [DMP range] [DMP range] [DMP range]
Age 64.1 (9.7) 66.5 (10.0) 66.2 (9.7) 65.1** (9.9)
[59.6;67.8] [65.4;69.3] [64.2;67.1] [59.6;69.3]
% Females 48 48 43 47
Charlson comorbidity index 1.48 (1.10) 2.26 (1.28) 2.22 (0.99) 1.83** (1.20) [1.15;2.48]
% Low education 35 48 25 37**
% Employment 43 30 37 38**
% Single 26 36 30 30**
  1. The table presents the mean (sd) unless otherwise indicated; in [] is given the range between DMPs i.e. lowest and highest values across DMPs in the same disease area; low education was defined as no or only primary education; The p-values show whether the values are statistically different between the diseases **Statistically different at p < 0.01 between the diseases.