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Table 4 Univariate analysis of factors associated with copd-related and total healthcare costs

From: Disproportionate utilization of healthcare resources among veterans with COPD: a retrospective analysis of factors associated with COPD healthcare cost

  COPD-related cost Total healthcare cost
Variables Unadjusted regression p-value Unadjusted regression p11-value
Coefficient Coefficient
[95% confidence limits] [95% confidence limits]
Age 0.003 [−0.008, 0.013] 0.627 −0.009 [−0.017, -0.001] 0.02
Female 0.413 [−0.252, 1.077] 0.223 0.192 [−0.309, 0.692] 0.452
Married −0.288 [−0.789, 0.213] 0.259 −0.527 [−0.904, -0.151] 0.006
Divorced 0.154 [−0.359, 0.666] 0.556 −0.222 [−0.608, 0.163] 0.258
Separated 0.010 [−0.733, 0.753] 0.979 0.004 [−0.555, 0.564] 0.987
Widowed 0.276 [−0.303, 0.856] 0.350 −0.248 [−0.684, 0.188] 0.264
Black 0.002 [−0.337, 0.341] 0.991 0.233 [−0.017, 0.483] 0.068
Current Smoker 0.750 [0.156, 1.345] 0.014 0.568 [0.14, 0.996] 0.009
Ever Smoker 0.749 [0.152, 1.346] 0.014 0.645 [0.215, 1.074] 0.003
Hospitalizations 1.196 [1.120, 1.271] <.0001 0.747 [0.68, 0.813] <.0001
Clinic visits 0.110 [0.091, 0.129] <.0001 0.055 [0.04, 0.04] <.0001
ED visits 0.695 [0.562, 0.828] <.0001 0.356 [0.252, 0.459] <.0001
Number of Prescriptions 0.049 [0.037, 0.060] <.0001 0.021 [0.012, 0.03] <.0001
BMI −0.015 [−0.031, 0.001] 0.067 0.012 [0, 0.025] 0.048
FEV1 −0.493 [−0.639, -0.349] <.0001 −0.019 [−0.13, 0.091] 0.73
FVC −0.300 [−0.422, -0.178] <.0001 −0.066 [−0.156, 0.024] 0.15
DLCO −0.070 [−0.092, -0.049] <.0001 −0.026 [−0.010, -0.01] 0.002
EF −1.192 [−2.568, 0.184] 0.089 −0.545 [−1.462, 0.371] 0.243
Maximum serum bicarbonate 0.086 [0.054, 0.118] <.0001 0.047 [0.024, 0.069] <.0001
CAD 0.282 [0.038, 0.527] 0.024 0.27 [0.086, 0.453] 0.004
Depression −0.102 [−0.360, 0.157] 0.440 0.281 [0.088, 0.475] 0.004
DM 0.194 [−0.075, 0.463] 0.157 0.416 [0.215, 0.617] <.0001
Heart failure 0.422 [−0.069, 0.914] 0.092 0.541 [0.172, 0.91] 0.004
Hypertension −0.119 [−0.348, 0.110] 0.309 0.137 [−0.035, 0.309] 0.119
Influenza vaccine −0.083 [−0.335, 0.168] 0.516 0.037 [−0.153, 0.227] 0.704
Pneumococcal vaccine 0.147 [−0.172, 0.466] 0.365 0.058 [−0.182, 0.298] 0.633
Long acting beta agonists 0.776 [0.545, 1.007] <.0001 0.178 [0, 0.355] 0.05
Short acting anti-muscarinic 0.756 [0.539, 0.974] <.0001 0.131 [−0.037, 0.298] 0.126
Long acting anti-muscarinic 0.964 [0.658, 1.269] <.0001 0.394 [0.161, 0.627] 0.001
Inhaled corticosteroids 0.815 [0.596, 1.034] <.0001 0.196 [0.27, 0.365] 0.023
Oral corticosteroids 1.034 [0.513, 1.556] <.0001 0.618 [0.225, 1.011] 0.002
Supplemental oxygen 1.081 [0.829, 1.333] <.0001 0.551 [0.358, 0.745] <.0001
Theophylline 0.619 [0.088, 1.150] 0.022 0.107 [−0.293, 0.507] 0.599
Statin −0.128 [−0.350, 0.095] 0.262 0.133 [−0.034, 0.301] 0.118
Illicit drug use −0.014 [−0.407, 0.380] 0.946 0.005 [−0.267, 0.276] 0.972
Nursing home resident 2.363 [1.839, 2.887] <.0001 1.682 [1.286, 2.078] <.0001
Treated by a pulmonologist 0.639 [0.389, 0.889] <.0001 0.359 [0.17, 0.549] <.001
COPD for > 5 years 0.335 [0.097, 0.574] 0.006 0.042 [−0.139, 0.222] 0.651
  1. ED, Emergency department; BMI, Body mass index; FEV1, Forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FVC, Forced vital capacity; DLCO, Diffusing capacity; EF, Ejection fraction; CAD, Coronary artery disease; DM, Diabetes mellitis; COPD, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.