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Table 3 Costs for stroke, 2003–2007, Germany

From: Cost of clinical events in health economic evaluations in Germany: a systematic review

Study Model type Specification of disease severity First cycle    Costs covered     Follow-up cycles   
    Time horizon Unit cost (€) Number of sourcesa Direct costsb Not specified Time horizon Unit cost (€) Number of sourcesa
       Hosp Rehab Other     
Year of costing: 2003
Annemans L. Int J Clin Pract 2006; 60(9): 1129–37 [8] Markov model Fatal stroke Not specified 1,897 1     Yes No follow-up costs considered
Lamotte M. Pharmacoeconomics 2006; 24(2): 155–69 [16] Markov model Fatal stroke Acute period 1,897 NA Yes     No follow-up costs considered
Annemans L. Int J Clin Pract 2006; 60(9): 1129–37 [8] Markov model Non-fatal stroke Not specified 3,390 1     Yes Annual follow-up costs 676 1
Lamotte M. Pharmacoeconomics 2006; 24(2): 155–69 [16] Markov model Non-fatal stroke Not specified 3,390 NA Yes     Annual follow-up costs 676 1
Liebl A. Gesund ökon Qual Manag 2006; 11: 105–11 [18] Decision tree Stroke First 3 months 12,068 1     Yes Months 4–12 1,491 1
           Annual follow-up costs 520 > 1
Year of costing: 2004
Lamotte M. Pharmacoeconomics. 2006; 24(8): 783–95 [17] Decision tree Stroke Acute period 3,390 1 Yes     No follow-up costs considered   
Roze S. Curr Med Res Opin 2006; 22(7): 1415–24 [23] Semi-Markov model Fatal stroke Not specified 9,006 1     Yes No follow-up costs considered   
Rasch A. Suchtmed 2009; 11(2): 47–55 [21] Markov model Stroke First 12 months 10,149 > 1     Yes Annual follow-up costs 4,364 > 1
Brüggenjürgen B. Eur J Health Econ 2007; 8(1): 51–7 [12] Markov model Stroke First 12 months 17,734 1 Yes Yes Yes   Annual follow-up costs 5,614 1
Roze S. Curr Med Res Opin 2006; 22(7): 1415–24 [23] Semi-Markov model Stroke Year of event 19,399 1     Yes Annual follow-up costs 6,060 1
Gandjour A. Health Policy 2007; 83(2–3): 257–67 [14] Markov model Stroke First 12 months 24,936 > 1     Yes Post-year 1 5,465 > 1
Year of costing: 2005
Scherbaum WA. Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2009; 7: 9 [25] Semi-Markov model TIA Year of event 2,354 NA Yes     Annual follow-up costs 0 NA
Claes C. Med Klin 2008; 103: 778–87 [13] Markov model Fatal stroke Acute period 2,500 NA Yes     No follow-up costs considered   
Claes C. Med Klin 2008; 103: 778–87 [13] Markov model Stroke Acute period 7,000 NA Yes     Rehab after acute event 7000 NA
Scherbaum WA. Cost Eff Resour Alloc 2009; 7: 9 [25] Semi-Markov model Stoke Year of event 10,524 > 1     Yes Annual follow-up costs 6,178 > 1
Weber CJ. Diabetes Sci Technol 2007; 1(5): 676–84 [28] Markov model Stroke Year of event 20,811 1     Yes Year after event 6,501 1
Berger K. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24(1): 267–74 [11] Markov model Stroke Initial treatment 4,692 NA     Yes First 6 months after event 6,664 NA
   Stroke         Second 6 months after event 5,936 NA
   Stroke         Subsequent 6- month intervals 5,251  
Berg J. Clin Ther 2007; 29(6): 1184–202 [9] Decision tree and Markov model Stroke Month 1 6813 1     Yes Months 2–12 12,112 1
   Stroke         Annual follow-up costs 5,600 1
Year of costing: 2006
Valentine WJ. Adv Ther 2008; 25(6): 567–84 [27] Semi-Markov model Fatal stroke Not specified 9,488 1     Yes No follow-up costs considered   
Schaufler TM. Gesund ökon Qual Manag 2009; 14: 71–5 [24] Markov model Stroke First 12 months 18,649 1     Yes Annual follow-up costs 4,416 1
Valentine WJ. Adv Ther 2008; 25(6): 567–84 [27] Semi-Markov model Stroke Year of event 20,439 1     Yes Annual follow-up events 6,385 1
Berg J. Curr Med Res Opin 2008; 24(7): 2089–101 [10] Decision tree and Markov model Stroke Month 1 6,912 > 1     Yes Months 2–12 12,289 1
   Stroke         Annual follow-up costs 5,681 1
Year of costing: 2007
Schwander B. Value Health 2009; 12(6): 857–71 [26] Markov model TIA First 12 months 3,365 > 1     Yes Annual follow-up costs 0 NA
   Stroke First 12  months 17,629 > 1     Yes Annual follow-up costs 7,337 > 1
Mittendorf T. Diabetes Obes Metab 2009; 11(11): 1068–79 [19] Semi-Markov model Fatal stroke Year of event 19,534 1     Yes No follow-up costs considered   
   Stroke Year of event 19,534 1     Yes Annual follow-up costs 5,780 1
Year of costing: not specified
Neeser K. J Kardiol 2006; 13: 131–20 [20] Markov model Fatal ischaemic stroke Not specified 3,573 1     Yes No follow-up costs considered   
   Severe bleeding Not specified 9,000 > 1     Yes After initial hospitalization until end of first year 5,003 1
   Ischaemic stroke Acute period 4,679 1 Yes     From second year onwards 12,500 1
  1. a Number of data sources from which unit costs were retrieved.
  2. b No indirect unit costs could be retrieved.
  3. hosp = hospital; rehab = rehabilitation; NA = not available; TIA = transient ischaemic attack.