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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: The role of cognition in cost-effectiveness analyses of behavioral interventions

Authors Topic Intervention Effectiveness measure Cognitive outcome measures Behavioral model used Application of cognitive outcome measures
Butler et al. 1999 [6] Smoking cessation Motivational consulting with brief advice Smoking cessation, reduction in addiction and quit attempts Stages-of-change Transtheoretical model, self-efficacy theory Effectiveness was calculated per stage-of-change at baseline and cognitive outcomes were used as secondary outcome measures
Crane et al. 2000 [17] Mammography screening Multiple outcall approach Mammography screening Stages-of-change, attitudes and knowledge Transtheoretical model Cognitive outcome measures were used to describe the theoretical foundations of the intervention and as secondary outcome measures
Emmons et al. 2005 [18] Smoking cessation Peer counseling or self-help intervention Smoking cessation Stages-of-change, self-efficacy, perceived vulnerability, social support and knowledge Transtheoretical model, social ecological model Cognitive outcomes were used as secondary outcome measures
Kyle et al. 2008 [19] Sun protection Sun protection education for young children Nonfatal cases and premature mortalities averted and QALYs saved Knowledge, attitude & intention No theoretical foundation in model Cognitive outcomes were used as secondary outcome measures
Lo et al. 2009 [20] Self-care behavior for stoma patients Multimedia learning education program Knowledge, attitude and behavior of self-care Knowledge and attitude of self-care No theoretical foundation in model The effectiveness measure was a combined score of knowledge, attitudes and behavior of self-care
Oldenburg et al. 1995 [21] CVD risk reduction CVD risk reduction programs Unweighted CVD lifestyle risk scores Stages-of-change Transtheoretical model, social learning theory Stages-of-change were used to appoint follow-up periods
Pyne et al. 2005 [22] Patient receptivity to anti-depressants Evidence-based primary-care depression intervention QALYs Attitude No theoretical foundation in model Two separate CE ratios were calculated for both negative and positive attitudes toward antidepressants
Rasu et al. 2010 [23] Weight management Internet-based weight management program Change in body weight, a weight change of 5% or more, and waist circumference. Social pressure No theoretical foundation in model A CE ratio was calculated for each additional point gain on the Social Pressure subscale, indicating increased confidence in managing social pressures to eat
Saywell et al. 1999 [24] Compliance with mammography
Counseling strategies Increase in mammography rate Intention to screen Health Belief Model Cognitive outcome was used as secondary outcome measure
Sims et al. 2004 [25] Changing GP's behavior Organized approach to exercise counseling Amount of patients screened, activity, accruing health benefit, DALYs and premature deaths averted Knowledge & attitudes No theoretical foundation in model Cognitive outcomes were used as secondary outcome measures
Smith et al. 2007 [26] Smoking cessation Multi component expert system intervention Quit smoking Stages-of-change Transtheoretical model An ICER was calculated that incorporated partial behavioral change as measured by the stages-of-change
Sood & Nambiar 2006 [27] HIV/AIDS prevention Entertainment-education-based mass media campaign Condom use frequency and changes in cognitive parameters of behavior change Knowledge, gender attitudes, & perceived risk Multiple stage models of behavior change Cost-effectiveness was calculated for condom use frequency and additionally for changes in the three cognitive outcome measures
  1. Note. Year year of publication, GP general practitioner, CEA cost-effectiveness analysis, CE ratio cost-effectiveness ratio, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, CVD cardiovascular disease, QALY quality adjusted life year, DALY disability adjusted life year