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Table 6 Social and severity subgroups in models and cause(s) of reduced capacity to benefit

From: Systematic review and critical methodological appraisal of community-based falls prevention economic models

Study labela Subgroup delineatorb Cause of reduced capacity to benefit Note
Four BODE3 modelsc Social: ethnicity (Maori vs. non-Maori) Life expectancy differential Also explores outcome differences across sex subgroups. Difficult to explore the double jeopardy problem due to homogenous intervention efficacy, cost and implementation level across subgroups
Eldridge et al. (2005) Severity: fear of falling Life expectancy differential Fear of falling experienced by fallers and non-fallers and hence can be interpreted as frailty. Does not report subgroup results
Honkanen et al. (2006) Severity: functional dependence Double jeopardy; life expectancy differential  
Smith et al. (2016) Severity: multivariate falls risk/frailtyd profile No reduced capacity Multivariate falls risk/frailty profile contained age, sex, all-cause secondary care use, fall and fracture history, chronic diseases and polypharmacy; all persons had same intervention efficacy, cost and implementation level
  1. BODE3 Burden of Disease Epidemiology, Equity & Cost-Effectiveness, HAM home assessment and modification
  2. aSee Table 1 for study references
  3. bIn identifying health severity subgroups, age, sex and individual fall/fracture risk factors (e.g., falls history, mobility impairment, bone mass density, vitamin D level, psychotropic medication use) were not interpreted as delineators. Studies that targeted specific patient groups within general older populations were excluded
  4. cDeverall et al. [94], Boyd et al. [109], Wilson et al. [110] and Pega et al. [111] which were developed by the Burden of Disease Epidemiology, Equity and Cost-Effectiveness (BODE3) research group in New Zealand
  5. dThe falls risk prediction tool included several indicators of generalised frailty (e.g., recurrent secondary care utilisations)