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Table 5 Summary of base case implementation levels, evidence source and outcomes in associated sensitivity analyses

From: Systematic review and critical methodological appraisal of community-based falls prevention economic models

Study labela Intervention Base case implementation levelsb Sensitivity analysis outcome
Initial access Compliance Sustainability (model time horizon) Evidence source
Albert et al. (2016) MF int.   Adherence: 78.6%
Fidelity: 84.1%
  Internal non-randomised No analysis
Alhambra-Borras et al. (2019) Exercise Uptake: 39.6%    Internal quasi-experimental No analysis
Beard et al. (2006) MC (intersectoral) int.    Maint.: 5 years (of 5) Internal quasi-experimental No analysis
Church et al. (2011) Multiple types    Maint.: 1 year (of 10) Assumption No analysis
Church et al. (2012) Multiple types    Maint.: 1 year (of lifetime) Assumption No analysis
Comans et al. (2009) MF int. (2 forms) Uptake: as scenario    Assumption ROI break-even
Day et al. (2009, 2010) Multiple typesc Uptake: 1.9% Tai Chi; 39.4% home exercise; 55.4% HAM; 55.4% MF int.; 18.9% Psychotropic med. withdrawal; 80.0% Cardiac pacing   Persistence: 61% home exercise
Maint.: 1 year (of 2) home exercise; 1 year (of 5) cardiac pacing
External RCT Falls and hospitalised falls averted; ICER (CEA)
Deverall et al. (2018) Group (commercial) exercise Uptake: 52%    External RCT Inc. cost; Inc. QALY; ICER (CUA)
   Persistence: 80.5% uptake in year 2; 10% in year 10 External RCTs and assumption Same as uptake
   Maint.: permanent External RCT No analysis
Home exercise Uptake: 52%    External RCT Inc. cost; Inc. QALY; ICER (CUA)
   Persistence: 76.3% uptake in year 2; 10% in year 5 External RCTs and assumption Same as uptake
   Maint.: permanent External RCT No analysis
Eldridge et al. (2005) FRS + MF int. or exercise (prescribed or self-referred) Uptake: 6.5% FRS; 50%/10% self-referred exercise for high-/low-risk persons    Internal survey Proportion of total falls averted
Farag et al. (2015) Non-specific intervention Uptake: 50%    Assumption ICER (CUA)
Franklin et al. (2019) FRS + exercise (3 forms) or HAM Uptake: 100% for those referred from FRS    Assumption ICER (CUA)
   Maint.: 1 year (of 2) Assumption No analysis
Hiligsmann et al. (2014) Vit D and calcium supplement    Maint.: 3 years (of lifetime) Assumption ICER (CUA)
Hirst et al. (2016) Med. modification   Adherence: 29.4% of eligible days   External survey Inc. cost; Inc. QALY; ICER (CUA)
Honkanen et al. (2006) Hip protector   Adherence: 36% of daily hours   External survey ICER (CUA)
   Persistence: 50% discontinue after 1st year; discontinuation rate declines exponentially External survey ICER (CUA)
Howland et al. (2015) MC int. (lay-led) Uptake: 50%    Assumption Aggregate efficiency (ROI: net cost saving)
  Fidelity: 100% refer   Assumption No analysis
Ippoliti et al. (2018) MF int. Uptake: 80%    Assumption No analysis
Johansson et al. (2008) MF int.    Maint.: 5 years (of lifetime) Internal quasi-experiment No analysis
Lee et al. (2013) Vit D screening and supplement   Adherence: 80%   External RCT No analysis
Miller et al. (2011) MC int. (lay-led)   Adherence: 71.4% Maint.: 1 year (of 2) Assumption No analysis
Mori et al. (2017) Home exercise Uptake: 42%    External RCTs No analysis
   Maint.: 1 year (of lifetime) Assumption Inc. cost; Inc. QALY; ICER (CUA)
Moriarty et al. (2019) Med. modification (Benzodiazepine, PPI)   Adherence: 100%   Assumption Inc. cost; Inc. QALY
Nshimyumukiza et al. (2013) Fracture risk screening + physical activity, Vit D and calcium, and/or Osteoporosis screen and treatment Uptake: 53%    External survey ICER (CEA, CUA)
   Maint.: permanent Assumption No analysis
OMAS (2008) Multiple types Uptake: 57.0% exercise; 27.0% psychotropic med.; not specified for HAM, Vit D, Gait stabiliser Adherence: 79.0% exercise; 75.7% HAM; 81.8% Vit D; 53.0% psychotropic med.; 80.0% Gait stabiliser   External RCTs and survey No analysis
   Persistence: same as adherence Assumption No analysis
Pega et al. (2016); Wilson et al. (2017) HAM Uptake: 89.0%    External RCT Inc. cost; Inc. QALY; ICER (CUA)
   Maint.: one-off, no renewal Assumption No analysis
Poole et al. (2015) Vit D supplement    Maint.: 5 years (of 5) External RCTs No analysis
PHE (2018) Exercise (3 forms); HAM Uptake: 20%   Maint.: 1 year (of 2) Assumption No analysis
Turner et al. (2020) Med. modification Adoption: 66% of GPs received pharmacist advice; 79% met older persons for deprescribing    Uncleard Inc. cost; Inc. QALY; ICER (CUA)
Uptake: 53%    External RCT No analysis
Wu et al. (2010) MF int. Uptake: 50%    External RCT and surveys Aggregate efficiency (ROI: net cost saving); ICER (CEA)
Zarca et al. (2014) Vit D screening and supplement   Adherence: 50%; 100% after fracture   External survey and assumption ICER (CUA)
   Maint.: permanent Assumption No analysis
  1. CBT cognitive behavioural therapy, CEA cost-effectiveness analysis, CSP Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, CUA cost-utility analysis, FRID fall risk increasing drug, FRS falls risk screening, HAM home assessment and modification, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, Inc. incremental, Int. intervention, Maint. Maintenance, MC multiple-component, MF multifactorial, OMAS Ontario Medical Advisory Secretariat, PHE Public Health England, PPI proton pump inhibitor, QALY quality-adjusted life year, RCT randomised controlled trial, ROI return on investment
  2. aSee Table 1 for study references
  3. bSupply and demand dimensions to implementation levels are distinguished: uptake (demand) and adoption (supply) for initial access; adherence and fidelity for compliance; and persistence and maintenance for sustainability. See Additional file 1: Table S3 for the references concerning the terms used
  4. cThe configuration is the same for Tai Chi in Day et al. [93]
  5. dCites the model Moriarty et al. [120] which does not report the parameter estimates directly