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Table 4 Time-variant falls risk factors and determinants of background health state utility and care cost progressions in non-binary models with horizons longer than 5 years

From: Systematic review and critical methodological appraisal of community-based falls prevention economic models

Study labela Time-variant falls risk factors Backgroundb health/cost determinants
Age Falls incidence Other Health state utility Comorbidity care cost
Cohort-level Markov modelsc
 Boyd et al. (2020) Tunnel state?d MA fall   Agee Agee
 Church et al. (2011, 2012) Tunnel state? Any fall   Agef  
 Deverall et al. (2018) Tunnel state? MA fall   Agee Agee
 Eldridge et al. (2005) Tunnel state? Fracture FoF Unclearf Post-fractureg
 Farag et al. (2015) Tunnel state? Any fall   Agef  
 Honkanen et al. (2006) Tunnel state? Hip fracture FS Agee; FS; LTC; post-hip fracture FS; LTC
 Johansson et al. (2008) Tunnel state? Hip fracture   Agee,f Age
 Moriarty et al. (2019) Tunnel state? MA fall, Hip fracture   Agef  
 OMAS (2008) Tunnel state? MA fall   CEA  
 Pega et al. (2016) Tunnel state? MA fall   Agee Agee
 RCN (2005) Tunnel state?    Age  
 Wilson et al. (2017) Tunnel state? MA fall   Agee Agee
Individual-level Markov models
 Hiligsmann et al. (2014) ×    Post-hip and vertebral fractures Post-hip fractureg
 Mori et al. (2017) × Fracture Osteoporosis Age; post-hip and vertebral fractures Post-hip fractureg
 Nshimyumukiza et al. (2013) × Fracture BMD Post-hip and vertebral fractures  
 Zarca et al. (2014) × Hip fracture Vitamin D Age; post-hip fracture  
  1. BMD bone mass density, CEA cost-effectiveness analysis, FoF fear of falling, FS functional status, LTC long-term care, MA fall fall requiring medical attention, OMAS Ontario Medical Advisory Secretariat, RCN Royal College of Nursing
  2. aSee Table 1 for study references
  3. bNot directed related to but indirectly influenced by falls/fractures: e.g., fatal fall influences lifetime comorbidity care costs
  4. cAlhambra-Borras et al. [146] was excluded due to unclear description of the dynamic model states following intervention
  5. dAge-based risk progression would require tunnel states but this was not mentioned or graphed, hence the question mark
  6. eStratified by further time-invariant factors including sex and ethnicity
  7. fUnclear whether events such as fracture and LTC admission incurred a one-off or permanent health utility loss
  8. gIncorporated ongoing care costs for serious fractures, which are not technically comorbidity care costs since they are directly associated with fall/fracture in model; but they can be interpreted as such given their permanent nature