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Table 1 Overview of included decision models for critical appraisal

From: Systematic review and critical methodological appraisal of community-based falls prevention economic models

# References Target population Type of analysis/perspective Intervention [type] (# of forms) Model type/time horizon
1 Agartioglu et al. [144] Fallers aged 65+ admitted to A&E CEA/PS HAM DT/1 year
2 Albert et al. [145] CD aged 50+ (mean age 75.5) CUA/PS MF int. DT/1 year
3 Alhambra-Borras et al. [146] CD aged 65+ at high falls risk or frail with no severe physical or cognitive limitation CUA/PS Exercise Markov cohort/lifetime
4 Beard et al. [103] CD aged 60+ CBA; ROI/PS; Soc Intersectoral (MC) int.a BDb/5 years
5 Boyd et al. [109] Aged 65+ CUA/PS Cataract surgery Markov cohort/20 years
6 Carande-Kulis et al. [97] CD aged 65+ ROI/US private health insurance Exercise (2); MC int. BD/1 year
7 CSP [96] CD aged 65+ ROI/PS FRS + exercise [PT] DT/1 year
8 Church et al. [89] CD and residential care, aged 65+ CEA; CUA/PS Exercise (3); MC int.; MF int.; MRA; cataract surgery; Med. mod.; cardiac pacing Markov cohort/10 years
9 Church et al. [90] CD aged 65+ CEA; CUA/PS Exercise (4); MC int.; MF int. (2); MRA; HAM; cataract surgery; Med. mod.; cardiac pacing Markov cohort/lifetime
10 Comans et al. [105] CD aged 65+, falls history or gait/functional decline, cognitively intact ROI/Soc MF int. (2) BD/1 year
11 Day et al. [104] CD, characteristics vary by interventionc CEA/PS; Soc Exercise (2); HAM; MF int.; Med. mod.; cardiac pacing DT/1 year
12 Day et al. [93] CD aged 70+ CEA/PS; Soc Exercise [Tai Chi] DT/1 year
13 Deverall et al. [94] CD aged 65+ CUA/PS; Soc Exercise (3) Markov cohort/25 years
14 Eldridge et al. [115] Aged 65+, CD or nursing home CUA/PS FRS + MF int. or exercise DT + Markov cohort/lifetime
15 Farag et al. [91] CD aged 65+, no falls history CUA/PS Non-specific int. Markov cohort/lifetime
16 Franklin et al. [92] CD aged 65+ CUA/PS FRS + exercise (3) or HAM DT + Markov cohort/2 years
17 Frick et al. [86] CD aged 65+ CUA/US healthcare payerd Exercise (2); HAM; MF int. (2); Med. mod.; Vit. D BD/1 yeare
18 Hektoen et al. [98] CD women aged 80+ CEA/Soc Exercise BD/1 year
19 Hiligsmann et al. [101] Aged 60+ with osteoporosis CUA/Soc Vit. D and calcium Markov patient/lifetime
20 Hirst et al. [123] Women 75+ on pain medication CUA/PS Med. mod. Markov patient/1 year
21 Honkanen et al. [119] Adults aged 65+, CD at baseline CUA; ROI/Soc Hip protectors Markov cohort/lifetime
22 Howland et al. [87] CD aged 65+, fall admitted to A&E ROI/US healthcare payerd MC int BD/1 year
23 Ippoliti et al. [112] CD aged 65+, mountainous areas ROI/PS MF int. BD/3 years
24 Johansson et al. [107] CD aged 65+ CUA/Soc Intersectoral (MC) int.f Markov cohort/lifetime
25 Lee et al. [147] CD aged 65–80, no falls history CBA/PS Vit. D [targeted vs. universal] DT + Markov cohort/3 years
26 Ling et al. [88] CD aged 65+, falls history/risk factors ROI/US healthcare payerd HAM BD/1 year
27 McLean et al. [148] CD aged 70+ CEA; CUA/PS Exercise DT/18 months
28 Miller et al. [106] CD aged 50+ at high falls risk ROI/US healthcared; Soc MC int. BD/2 years
29 Mori et al. [95] CD women 65+, no osteoporotic fracture CUA/Soc Exercise [alone or with bisphosphonate] DT + Markov patient/lifetime
30 Moriarty et al. [120] CD aged 65, no adverse events from benzodiazepine/PPI CUA/PS Med. mod. DT + Markov patient/35 years
31 Nshimyu-mukiza et al. [113] Women aged 40+ (subgroup 65+) CEA; CUA/PS Fracture risk screening + physical activity, Vit. D and calcium, and/or Osteoporosis screening and treatment DT + Markov patient/lifetime
32 OMAS [114] CD aged 65+ CEA; ROI/PS Exercise; HAM; Vit. D and calcium; Med. mod.; gait-stabilizer Markov cohort/lifetime
33 Pega et al. [111] CD aged 65+ CUA/PS HAM Markov cohort/lifetime
34 Poole et al. [149] Aged 65+ ROI/PS Vit. D BD/1 year
35 Poole et al. [150] CD aged 60+ CUA; ROI/PS Vit. D Markov cohort/5 years
36 PHE [116] CD aged 65+ CUA; ROI/PS Exercise (3); HAM DT/2 years
37 RCN [84] CD aged 60+ CUA/PS Exercise; MF int. Markov cohort/lifetime
38 Sach et al. [99] Women 70+, bilateral cataracts CEA; CUA/PS; Soc Cataract surgery [first eye] BD/lifetime extrapol.g
39 Sach et al. [100] Women 70+, second operable cataract CUA/PS; Soc Cataract surgery [second eye] BD/lifetime extrapol.g
40 Smith et al. [85] Aged 65+ covered by GP and hospital ROI/PS FRS + MF int Risk prediction/1 year
41 Tannenbaum et al. [121] CD aged 65+ and insomnia CUA/PS Med. mod.; CBT Markov cohort/5 years
42 Turner et al. [124] CD aged 65+ chronic sedative use for insomnia CUA/PS Med. mod. DT + Markov cohort/1 year
43 van der Velde et al. [151] CD geriatric outpatients with falls history CEA/PS Med. mod. BD/1 yeare
44 Wilson et al. [110] CD aged 65+ CUA/PS HAM Markov cohort/lifetime
45 Wu et al. [102] CD Medicare beneficiaries aged 65+ and falls history CEA; ROI/PS; Soc MF int. BD/1 year
46 Zarca et al. [122] Aged 65+ without previous hip fracture CEA; CUA/PS Vit. D (targeted in two ways vs. universal) DT + Markov patient/lifetime
  1. BD binary decision (model), CBA cost–benefit analysis, CBT cognitive behavioural therapy, CD community-dwelling, CEA cost-effectiveness analysis, CSP Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, CUA cost-utility analysis, DT decision tree, Exp. Expedited, FRS falls risk screening, HAM home assessment and modification, Int. intervention, Med. mod. medication modification, MC multiple-component, MF multifactorial, MRA multifactorial risk assessment only, OMAS Ontario Medical Advisory Secretariat, PHE Public Health England, PPI proton pump inhibitor, PS public sector, PT physiotherapy, RCN Royal College of Nursing, ROI return on investment analysis, Soc societal
  2. aIncluded individually tailored education, HAM and exercise and public space safety improvement
  3. bBinary decision models include two scenarios, with or without intervention, and no time-based cycles or probability trees
  4. cCardiac pacing targeted population aged 50+ due to high falls risk. Other interventions targeted populations aged 65+
  5. dThis would include public Medicare/aid, private health insurance and patients
  6. e1-year horizon with lifetime costs of falls
  7. fIncluded individually tailored education, group balance exercises, Tai Chi, other physical activities and HAM, neighbourhood hazard removal and housing reconstruction
  8. g1-year trial outcomes are extrapolated over lifetime horizon