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Table 1 Description of input, output and exogenous variables

From: Level and determinants of county health system technical efficiency in Kenya: two stage data envelopment analysis

Variable Description Data source
Output variable
 DALYS The reciprocal of DALY rates per 1,00,000 population 2018 Global burden of disease
Inputs
 County public health expenditure (Kenya shillings) County public health expenditure per 1,00,000 population 2018 Controller of budget reports
 County private health expenditure County private health expenditure per 1,00,000 population 2018 KHHEUS
 Number of healthcare facilities (Kenya shillings) Number of healthcare facilities (public and private) in the county per unit population 2018 KHFS
Exogenous variables
 Under 5 years population Proportion of the population under 5 years KHIBS survey
 Elderly population Proportion of the population over 60 years KHIBS survey
 Level of corruption County corruption index EACC ethics and corruption survey
 HIV burden The prevalence of HIV in the county Kenya aids indicator survey
 Development budget absorption The proportion of the annual county development budget that is executed (spent/implemented) Controller of budget reports
 Recurrent budget absorption The proportion of the annual county recurrent budget that is executed (spent/implemented) Controller of budget reports
 Alcohol consumption Proportion of the population taking alcohol STEPS survey
 Level of literacy Proportion of the population that is literate KDHS
 Quality of care Quality of care index SDI
 Population density Population density per square kilometres Kenya census data
Urbanization Proportion of population living in the urban areas Kenya census data
 County economic performance County per capita GDP CRA report
 Private Private health facilities as a proportion of all health facilities in the county KHHEUS
 Absenteeism Proportion of absenteeism of health workers SDI
 Autonomy Full autonomy-public health facilities have complete access to and flexibility to spend funds County informants
Partial autonomy—public health facilities have access to some funds but not others
No autonomy—public health facilities have no access to any funds, but rather redirect them to the county department of health
 Water Proportion of households that with clean water KHIBS survey
 Smoking Proportion of the population that smokes STEPS survey