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Table 1 General characteristics of the study population

From: Association between changes in economic activity and catastrophic health expenditure: findings from the Korea Health Panel Survey, 2014–2016

Variables Total CHE experience in 2015a P-value
N (%) Yes (%) No (%)
Economic activity (2014 → 2015)     <.0001
 Active → active 6837 (54.9) 87 (1.3) 6750 (98.7)  
 Inactive → active 796 (6.4) 26 (3.3) 770 (96.7)  
 Active → inactive 611 (4.9) 26 (4.3) 585 (95.7)  
 Inactive → inactive 4210 (33.8) 158 (3.8) 4052 (96.2)  
Sex     0.1211
 Men 5667 (45.5) 122 (2.2) 5545 (97.8)  
 Women 6787 (54.5) 175 (2.6) 6612 (97.4)  
Age     <.0001
 19–34 1808 (14.5) 7 (0.4) 1801 (99.6)  
 35–49 3619 (29.1) 12 (0.3) 3607 (99.7)  
 50–64 3449 (27.7) 56 (1.6) 3393 (98.4)  
 65– 3578 (28.7) 222 (6.2) 3356 (93.8)  
Marital status     0.3432
 Married 8834 (70.9) 218 (2.5) 8616 (97.5)  
 Single, widowed, divorced, separated 3620 (29.1) 79 (2.2) 3541 (97.8)  
Educational level     <.0001
 Middle school and below 4126 (33.1) 218 (5.3) 3908 (94.7)  
 High school 4473 (35.9) 60 (1.3) 4413 (98.7)  
 College and over 3855 (31.0) 19 (0.5) 3836 (99.5)  
Medical aid     0.5929
 No 12,051 (96.8) 289 (2.4) 11,762 (97.6)  
 Yes 403 (3.2) 8 (2.0) 395 (98.0)  
Disability status     <.0001
 No 11,571 (92.9) 253 (2.2) 11,318 (97.8)  
 Yes 883 (7.1) 44 (5.0) 839 (95.0)  
Charlson comorbidity index     <.0001
 0 10,321 (82.9) 173 (1.7) 10,148 (98.3)  
 1 1475 (11.8) 73 (4.9) 1402 (95.1)  
 2+ 658 (5.3) 51 (7.8) 607 (92.2)  
Unmet medical needs     0.0271
 No 9401 (75.5) 208 (2.2) 9193 (97.8)  
 Yes 3053 (24.5) 89 (2.9) 2964 (97.1)  
Current smoker     <.0001
 No 10,207 (82.0) 270 (2.6) 9937 (97.4)  
 Yes 2247 (18.0) 27 (1.2) 2220 (98.8)  
Alcohol consumption     <.0001
 No 8176 (65.6) 128 (1.6) 8048 (98.4)  
 Yes 4278 (34.4) 169 (4.0) 4109 (96.0)  
Region     <.0001
 Urban area 5298 (42.5) 74 (1.4) 5224 (98.6)  
 Rural area 7156 (57.5) 223 (3.1) 6933 (96.9)  
Head of household     <.0001
 Householder 5986 (48.1) 177 (3.0) 5809 (97.0)  
 Non-householder 6468 (51.9) 120 (1.9) 6348 (98.1)  
Household income level     0.0020
 Low 5136 (41.2) 151 (2.9) 4985 (97.1)  
 Middle 3762 (30.2) 81 (2.2) 3681 (97.8)  
 High 3556 (28.6) 65 (1.8) 3491 (98.2)  
Lagged household income level (in 2014)     <.0001
 Low 4528 (36.4) 227 (5.0) 4301 (95.0)  
 Middle 3952 (31.7) 54 (1.4) 3898 (98.6)  
 High 3974 (31.9) 16 (0.4) 3958 (99.6)  
Lagged dependent variable (in 2014)     <.0001
 With CHE 292 (2.3) 60 (20.5) 232 (79.5)  
 Without CHE 12,162 (97.7) 237 (1.9) 11,925 (98.1)  
Total 12,454 (100.0) 297 (2.4) 12,157 (97.6)  
  1. The p-value is the Chi square test result
  2. aCHE Catastrophic health expenditure
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