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Table 8 Determinants of exposure CHE (patient level)

From: Determinants of catastrophic health expenditures in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Determinants of catastrophic health expenditures Frequency of studies with this factor
Increased likelihood of CHE Decreased likelihood of CHE
Factors related to household characteristics   
 Gender of the household head (female) 6  
 Supplementary insurance status (patient)   5
 Health insurance   4
 Non-native 4  
 Members over 60 years 2  
 Employment situation of the head of household   2
 Disease of family members 2  
 Members with special diseases in the household 1  
 Member with chronic illness 1  
 Members under 12 years 1  
 Type of insurance (relief committee–medical services) 1  
 Distance of the residence of the medical center 1  
 Disabled member in household 1  
 Members in need of care 1  
 Education status of patients   2
 Education status of household head 1 2
 Self-employed head of household 1  
 Household size 4 2
 Access to safe water   1
 Age of household head 2 1
 Having member < 6 years   1
 Having member < 14 years   1
 Marital status of household head (not married head)   1
 Sex of the patients (male) 1 1
 Age (patients) 1 1
 Members aged 40–59 years old 1  
 Living in the rural 1 1
Household economic factors
 Household income level   5
 Wealth index   4
 Housing ownership 2 2
 Economic status   1
 Having made any out of hospital payments 1  
 Existence of a certain financial sources to get healthcare services   1
The factors related to the use of health services
 Frequency of using inpatient services 3  
 Hospitalization day numbers 2  
 Admission to a private hospital 2  
 Use of outpatient services 1  
 Frequency of using outpatient services 1  
 Use of rehabilitation services 1  
 Brand of drug (foreign drugs) 1  
 Refrained from using healthcare services 1  
 Use of dental care 1  
 Type of treatment (chemotherapy) 1  
 Frequency of using dialysis services 1  
 Frequency of using inpatient services 3