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Table 2 Childhood/adolescence and adulthood, mild to moderate impairment with no developmental delay/disability: condition-related annual direct health care costs

From: A framework for assessing the lifetime economic burden of congenital cytomegalovirus in the United States

Cost component Cost estimatea,b Cost estimate (variability) Population Data source Source
Direct health care costs related to SNHL
 First year hearing loss is identified Assumed: $1946 to $2006c,d None reported N/A Medicare reimbursement rates applied to treatment algorithms for mild, moderate, and severe SNHL based on clinical opinion Gantt et al. [23]
 < 6 year of age Assumed: $1921 to $1971c,d
 6–12 year of age Assumed: $1595 to $1682c,d
 13–17 year of age Assumed: $1585 to $1673c,d
 ≥ 18 years of age Assumed: $984c
Direct health care costs related to vision loss
 Blindness/vision loss Total, per person: $7623 None reported Respondents with ICD-9-CM code 361 (no self-reported diabetes), 362 (no self-reported diabetes), 369, or 378 MEPS Wittenborn and Rein [41]
 Retinal disorders (without diabetes) Total, per person: $4268
 Strabismus Total, per person: $2705
  1. CPI, Consumer Price Index; ICD-9-CM, International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification; MEPS, Medical Expenditure Panel Survey; N/A, not applicable; SNHL, sensorineural hearing loss; US, United States
  2. aCost estimates are inflated to 2018 US $ using the medical care component of the CPI [31]. Gantt et al. [23] and Wittenborn and Rein [41] were originally presented in 2016 and 2013 US $, respectively
  3. bDirect health care cost estimates exclude out-of-pocket costs
  4. cGantt et al. [23] does not report the type/measure of the cost estimate provided. Cost estimate from Wittenborn and Rein [41] does not control for the presence of other vision-related conditions
  5. dThe lower bound provides the cost estimate for patients with mild to moderate hearing loss; the upper bound proves the cost estimate for patients with severe to profound hearing loss