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Table 5 Healthcare use and costs (in euros) per patient per year in the intervention and control groups at 12 months

From: Cost-effectiveness of a proactive, integrated primary care approach for community-dwelling frail older persons

  Care as usual (n = 176) FFF approach (n = 182)
Mean usea (SD) Total costs (SD) in € Mean usea (SD) Total costs (SD) in €
Healthcare
 Hospital (days) 2.66 (6.92) 1275.14 (3305.59) 2.14 (9.55) 1026.89 (4546.80)
 Consultations with the GP 3.57 (3.41) 118.61 (111.78) 3.83 (3.44) 127.14 (113.30)
 Consultations out-of-hours GP 0.25 (0.88) 24.23 (82.89) 0.22 (0.60) 21.05 (56.49)
 Professional homecare (hours per week)
  Household activities (homecare or personal budget) 1.16 (1.50) 1302.25 (1671.23) 1.58 (1.63) 1772.57 (1816.37)
  Household activities (private) 0.76 (1.37) 850.15 (1520.05) 0.46 (1.21) 520.28 (1344.72)
  Personal care 0.92 (1.91) 2393.81 (4928.75) 1.37 (2.83) 3574.16 (7270.45)
  Nursing care 0.11 (0.50) 432.95 (1871.74) 0.31 (1.33) 1182.55 (4976.57)
 Care home (weeks) 0.20 (1.27) 236.61 (1496.48) 0.17 (1.18) 197.18 (1387.62)
 Nursing home (weeks) 0.09 (0.81) 102.85 (962.21) 0.28 (2.15) 330.47 (2524.32)
 Elderly day care (days per week) 0.05 (0.37) 358.45 (2624.88) 0.05 (0.33) 350.48 (2361.89)
 Day care treatment (days per week) 0.02 (0.23) 246.11 (3264.99) 0.04 (0.30) 641.70 (4244.80)
 Physiotherapist (consultations) 6.01 (10.89) 199.39 (361.68) 8.64 (18.07) 286.74 (594.85)
 Exercise therapist (consultations) 0.31 (3.48) 10.75 (118.69) 1.36 (9.63) 46.36 (327.42)
 Medical specialist (consultations) 2.65 (4.07) 242.74 (371.38) 2.25 (3.17) 227.60 (287.96)
 Social worker (sessions) 0.06 (0.45) 3.72 (29.43) 0.45 (4.06) 29.59 (263.51)
 Psychologist or psychiatrist (sessions) 0.04 (0.38) 2.58 (24.20) 0.22 (1.20) 13.95 (76.65)
Assistive aids and in-home modifications
 Wheelchair 0.01 (0.11) 0.54 (5.03) 0.03 (0.18) 1.57 (8.47)
 Alarm system 0.06 (0.23) 1.41 (5.78) 0.08 (0.28) 2.06 (6.87)
 Wheeled walker 0.07 (0.25) 1.40 (5.20) 0.09 (0.29) 1.93 (6.00)
 Stairlift 0.01 (0.11) 3.54 (33.09) 0.02 (0.13) 5.16 (39.74)
 Adjusted doorsteps 0.02 (0.15) 0.42 (2.79) 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0)
 Adjusted bathroom 0.09 (0.28) 2.97 (9.76) 0.03 (0.16) 0.96 (5.72)
Mean total costsb   8902.06 (11,227.42)   11,426.21 (14,600.79)
Mean total intervention costs   n/a   233
  1. aMeans (SDs) were calculated including persons without healthcare utilization
  2. bMean total costs calculated after imputation of missing healthcare costs including persons lost to follow-up between T0 and T1 (n = 50 in the intervention group and n = 56 in the control group)