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Table 3 Well-being and QALYs at baseline (T0) and 12 months (T1)

From: Cost-effectiveness of a proactive, integrated primary care approach for community-dwelling frail older persons

  Care as usual (n = 232) FFF approach (n = 232)
Outcome measures
 Well-being (SPF-ILs)
  T0 2.62 (0.50) 2.63 (0.49)
  T1 2.67 (0.49) 2.59 (0.46)
 QALYs (utilities based on EQ-5D-3L)
  T0 0.66 (0.24) 0.63 (0.26)
  T1 0.71 (0.20)*,a 0.67 (0.24)
  1. Values are presented as mean (SD)
  2. SPF-ILs: Social Production Function Instrument for the Level of well-being short (range 1–4); EQ-5D-3L: five-dimensional three-level EuroQol (range for utilities, − 0.33 to 1)
  3. Data from univariate analyses after imputation of missing values
  4. Paired sample t-tests or independent samples t-tests
  5. *p < 0.05 (two-tailed)
  6. a Significant improvement in QALYs in the control group over time based on paired data