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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patient cohort from the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry (base case) and the LEAD study (scenario analysis)

From: Insulin glargine compared to neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin in patients with type-2 diabetes uncontrolled with oral anti-diabetic agents alone in Hong Kong: a cost-effectiveness analysis

  Hong Kong Diabetes Registry LEAD study
Demographics and metabolic profile
 Age (year) 57.28 ± 13.05 56.1 ± 8.6a
 Male (%) 49.4 42a
 Current smoker (%) 16.02 16.02
 Duration of diabetes (year) 7.08 ± 6.46 10 ± 5.8a
 HbA1c (%) 8.98 ± 1.49 9.04 ± 0.86a
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.36 ± 4.04 24.95 ± 3.2a
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 135.52 ± 20.28 135.52 ± 20.28
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76.25 ± 10.91 76.25 ± 10.91
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 207.13 ± 46.51 207.13 ± 46.51
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 49.96 ± 13.13 49.96 ± 13.13
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 123.35 ± 38.85 123.35 ± 38.85
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 183.97 ± 193.81 183.97 ± 193.81
 Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 82.27 ± 22.66 82.27 ± 22.66
 Haemoglobin (g/dL) 13.98 ± 1.57 13.98 ± 1.57
 White blood cell (106/mL) 7.47 ± 2.57 7.47 ± 2.57
 uACRa [20] 3.1 mg/mmol 3.1 mg/mmol
 Serum creatinineb [21] 0.946 mg/dL 0.946 mg/dL
 Serum albuminb [21] 3.9 g/dL 3.9 g/dL
 Cigarettes/dayb [22] 2 2
 Alcohol consumptionb [23] 5 Oz/week 5 Oz/week
Diabetes complications
 Acute myocardial infarction (%) 8.19 8.19
 Angina (%) 8.19 8.19
 Congestive heart failure (%) 1.83 1.83
 Stroke (%) 1.96 1.96
 Peripheral vascular disease (%) 5.12 5.12
 Atrial fibrillationb (%) [24] 0.03 0.03
 LVHb (%) [25] 0.03 0.03
 Microalbuminuria (%) 29.48 29.48
 Gross renal proteinuriab (%) [26] 0.139 0.139
 End-stage renal disease (%) 0.30 0.30
 Background diabetic retinopathy (%) 25.06 25.06
 Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (%) 2.20 2.20
 Sever vision lossb (%) [27] 0.079 0.079
 Macular edemab (%) [27] 0.01 0.01
 Cataracts (%) 23.29 23.29
 Diabetic neuropathy (%) 22.87 22.87
 Amputation (%) 0.26 0.26
  1. Values are expressed as mean (standard deviation) or percentages as appropriate
  2. GFR glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, HDL high density-lipoprotein, LDL low density-lipoprotein, LEAD Lantus evaluation in Asian diabetics, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy, uACR urinary albumin–creatinine ratio
  3. aLEAD study [7]
  4. bCDM default value. Source between parenthesis