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Table 4 Summary of characteristics of included studies

From: A comprehensive map of the evidence on the performance evaluation indicators of public hospitals: a scoping study and best fit framework synthesis

  First author (year) Country Study design Aim of study Setting
1. Vera Antonia Büchner (2000–2011) Germany Quantitative, cross-sectional Investigates potential changes in hospital performance after health system entry 833 hospitals
2. Marcelo Cristiano de Azevedo, (2012) Sao Paulo, Brazil Quantitative, cross-sectional If size, administrative level, legal status, type of unit and educational activity influence the hospital network performance 533 hospitals
3. Duygu Kirgin Toprak (2010) Turkey Quantitative, cross-sectional Explore the effect of having ISO 9000 certification on the performance of public hospitals 146 hospitals
4. Neidamar Pedrini Arias Fugaça (2014–2015) Brazil Qualitative field study To develop a proposal for a nursing panel of indicators 200 medical records of patients
5. Jack Zwanziger (1990–1999) USA Quantitative, cross-sectional Study the impact of safety net activities on total profit margins and operating expenditures 16,680
Hospital*year observations.
6. Joel Kupersmith (1989–2004)   Literature review To compare the quality of care in teaching hospitals with that in nonteaching hospitals  
7. Josue Patien Epane (2007–2014) USA Quantitative, longitudinal Explores the impact of hospitalists staffing intensity on hospitals_ financial performance 4354 hospitals per year
8. Asgar Aghaei Hashjin (2002–2008) Iran Mixed method longitudinal To describe the development and process of implementation of the HPMP, and to explore the impact
On hospital performance
696 hospitals
9. Natalie Taylor (2000–2014) Australia Systematic review Undertake a systematic review of qualitative literature to identify methods used to identify high performing hospitals, the factors associated with high performers, and practical strategies for improvement 19 studies
10. P. Xenos (2009–2012) Greece Cross-sectional To examine the dynamics of efficiency and productivity in Greek public hospitals 117 public hospital
11. Amy K. Rosen (2005–2006) USA Quantity Find the relationship between safety climate and safety outcomes in hospitals 30 hospital
12. Denise Fornazari de Oliveira (2003) Brazil Quantitative and qualitative cross-sectional Obtaining subsidies for standardization of a quality assessment program 1129 patients
13. Anam Parand (1983–2010) UK Systematic review To review the empirical literature to identify the activities, time spent and engagement of hospital managers in quality of care 19 articles
14. Renu Agarwal (2016) Australia Mixed cross-sectional To investigate the quality of management practices of public hospitals in Australian healthcare system Benchmark in 7 countries (Sweden, USA, UK, Germany, France, Italy and Canada)
15. Abhijit Basu (2006–2007) UK Quantity, cross-sectional Analysis the data regarding the different clinical quality performance indicators mentioned in The Intelligent Board (2006) and to determine whether the results could be reliably used to interpret a hospital’s performance One hospital
16. Peter Davis (2001–2009) New Zealand Quantitative, Cross-national Focus on evaluating hospital performance, using the New Zealand public hospital as a pragmatic application. Present descriptive results for the efficiency and effectiveness measures. In each case values for hospitals are ranked. Using the coefficient of variation 35 hospitals
17. Xiuzhu Gu (2016) Japan Quantitative
Pilot study on hospital management pis
To capture factors behind professional views of indicator usefulness as a common structure for assessing healthcare performance and their important characteristics to design limited key performance indicators (pis) for holistic hospital management 228 manager and 894 staff responses
18. Mohammad Mehrtak (2014) Iran Quantitative, cross-sectional and retrospective To measure the efficiency of hospitals Employing two distinct methods 18 general hospital
19. George H. Pink (2000–2005) Canada Mixed Descriptive statistics, histograms and scatterplots were used to verify programming accuracy This article describes the method used to select key financial indicators for inclusion in hospital report. And describe the literature, panel and survey approach that was used, and we present the results for five years of recent data for Ontario hospitals 12 hos
20. Vivian G (2004) USA Quantitative cross-sectional Analysis to assess the trade-offs between quality and efficiency in U.S. hospitals 1,377 urban hospital
21. Effie Simou (1980–2010) Greece Mixed
A literature review and a consensus panel
Describes the development of a preliminary set of quality indicators, which were used in the “health monitoring indicators system project, with the purpose of assessment the quality of all the aspects relevant to public hospital healthcare workforce and services provided  
22. Dan Culica (2003–2005) USA Quantitative To estimate the association between dimensions of board infrastructure and dynamics to their hospital financial outcomes. In addition, the extent to which financial performance was influenced by the board activities and infrastructure was explored 75% of hospitals
23. Bahram Nabilou (2009–2014) Iran Quantity, cross-sectional Determine the total factor productivity and its components over the period under the study. 17 hospital
24. Nermin Ozgulbas (2004) Turkey Quantitative Presents an application of the data mining method to determine the financial profiles
Of the public hospitals
645 public hospitals
25. John E. Schneider (1997–2004) USA   Focuses on one important economic question: does the presence of specialty hospitals in a market affect general hospitals’ financial performance?  
26. Kristin L. Reiter (1999 and 2006) Canada Quantity, cross-sectional   92 hospital
27. Jeffrey A. Alexander (2006) USA Quantity The objective of this study was to examine the association between the scope and intensity of Quality improvement (QI) implementation in hospitals and organizational performance 1784 community hospitals
28. Hamed Rahimi (2017) Iran Mixed method Organize suitable key performance indicators for hospitals’ performance evaluation based on the balanced scorecard 17 expert panel
29. Goshtasebi, A (2005–2006) Iran Cross-sectional The Pabon Lasso model was applied to assess the performance of six State-run hospitals 6 hospital
30. Jack Needleman, Ellen T. Kurtzman, Kenneth W. Kizer - Review Reviews efforts and issues involved in identifying a set of nursing-sensitive performance measures -
31. Carmen Silvia Gabriel (2009 to January 2010) Sao Paulo, Brazil Quantitative To identify performance indicators adopted by the Nursing Service of a public hospital and to analyze the opinions of the nurses regarding the use of these indicators to evaluate the quality of the nursing care  
32. Thomas N. Chirikos (1982–1993) USA Quantitative To compare the results of scoring hospital efficiency by means of two new types of frontier models, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and stochastic frontier regression (SFR) 186 hospital
33. Mahmoud Keyvanara (2013) Iran Cross-sectional Suggesting a new paradigm in hospital governance, the aim of this study was to measure the social responsibility in hospitals 21 hospital
34. Raana Gholamzadeh Nikjoo (2010) Iran Quantitative-qualitative study Literature review & AHP The aim of the present study is to identify and to select key hospitals performance indicators. 8 expert panel
35. Vivienne McLaughlin (2005) OECD countries Qualitative and quantitative structured reviewand panel Quality Indicator Project, which aimed at developing an initial set of patient safety indicators  
36. John ovret veit (2001) Nordic countries Work shop-literature review Provide an overview for non-specialist of the different quality evaluation and indicator scheme for inspection and improvement  
37. Phil Hider (2001–2009) New Zealand Quantity The risk adjustment accounted for age, gender, ethnicity, rurality, deprivation and comorbidities and was undertaken with SAS20 software 91 hospital
38. Farhad Lotfi (2007–2011) Iran Quantity
To obtain an overview of hospitals’ performance status by applying, hospital performance ratios, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), Pabon lasso to compare similarities and differences between these methods and suggest the most comprehensive and practical method of appraisal for managers and policy makers. By Windeap 2.1 software 16 hospital
39. Conference (2014) Ministry of health & HIMSS Middle East    
40. Mohamed Khalifa (2014) Saudi Arabia Qualitative Decided to develop and utilize a group of strategic kpis to monitor, measure and improve the performance of the hospital including different departments and services All professionals who belong to this group of executive and leading function
41. Peivand Bastani (2008) Iran Quantity cross-sectional This study was designed to present and compare Iranian hospitals` performance applying ratio analysis technique. 139 hospital
42. Barliba loan (2008) Romania Quantitative cross-sectional Focus on a specific stage of the research, namely: testing the managerial relevance of kpis, as a main element for validating applicability of the suggested model 5 hospital
43. Report Canadian institute for health information (2013) Canada Report To inform the development of the hospital performance framework
44. David R. (2001) Briefly summarize the history of performance measures for hospitals, health plans, and health care systems
45. Olimpio J. (1996) Sao Paolo, Brazil    
46. Jérémy Veillard (2003) Spain Mixed Twelve responses came from the 11 countries. One questionnaire was sent to each one of the countries. Surveys were filled in either by individuals or by large multi-professional working groups 200 hospital
47. Beth Engel Brecht (2000) It provides a framework towards a well-managed District Hospital
48. Jenny Hargreaves (2008–2009) Australia    
49. Khayat Moghadam Saeed (2014) Iran Descriptive-analyzed Albrecht model was used because it was able to measure organizational intelligence and for the performance measurement