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Table 3 Cost effectiveness results of the reviewed studies based on the type of the intervention, ranked by cost-effectiveness ratio

From: Cost effectiveness of HIV and sexual reproductive health interventions targeting sex workers: a systematic review

Paper Intervention components GDP/capita of the country—2016 INT$ Original ICER reported Cost/DALY averted—2016 INT$ Other outcomes—2016 INT$
Behavioral interventions
 Tromp et al. [44] VCT for HIV and condom use 11,632 248 (US$ 2008)/HIV infection averted and 9.2 (US$ 2008)/DALY averted 33 889/HIV infection averted
Biomedical interventions
 Carrara et al. [34] STI services (diagnosis and treatment) 3744 127 (US$ 2002)/STI cured 33a 658/STI cured
 Marseille et al. [40] Female condom 13,248 509 (US$ 2000)/HIV infection averted 62a 1232/HIV infection averted
 Leelahavarong et al. [39] HIV vaccination 16,946 2840 (Thai Bhat 2009)/QALY gained 264 NA
 Wilson et al. [48] STI testing for HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhea testing every 12 weeks 46,790 10,000,000 (AUS$ 2007)/QALY gained 10,197,390 4078,956/HIV infection averted
Structural interventions
 Borghi et al. [32] Vouchers for free SH consul and STI treat 5550 103 (US$ 1999)/STI cured 18a 364/STI cured
Mixed interventions
 Hutton and Wyss [38] Mass media, social marketing of condoms, peer group education, treatment of STIs, prevention of mother-to-child-transmission, blood safety and voluntary testing 1996 16 (US$ 2012)/HIV infection averted 4a 77/HIV infection averted
 Vassal et al. [45] Community mobilisation and empowerment (i.e. community involvement in programme management and services, violence reduction, and addressing legal policies and police practices) was added to Avahan’s existing interventions. (behavior change, condom distribution, STI treatment, etc.) 6583 13.48 (US$ 2011)/DALY averted and 228 (US$ 2011)/HIV infection averted 51 869/Infection averted in Bellary
14.12 (US$ 2011)/DALY averted and 234 (US$ 2011)/HIV infection averted 54 892/infection averted in Belgaum
 Burgos et al. [33] Mujer Segura: 35 min behavioral skills session to improve condom negotiation provided once-only or annually, with or without HAART 17,877 183 (US$ 2009)/DALY averted 368 4779/HIV infection averted
 Sweat et al. [43] Community mobilisation, promotional media, and interpersonal communication (and a policy regulatory intervention in Puerto Playa) 15,2355 1186 (US$ 2006)/DALY averted 3017 Santo Domingo: 71,747/HIV infection averted
457 (US$ 2006)/DALY averted 1162 Puerto Playa: 27,612/HIV infection averted
 Vickerman et al. [46] Rapid test for HIV, chlamydia and gonorrhea plus condom promotion 2172 151 (US$ 2004)/HIV infection averted 25a 503/HIV infection averted
 Fung et al. [36] Behavioral, STI treatment, peer-education, Condom distribution 6583 98 (US$ 2007)/HIV infection averted 31a 626/HIV infection averted
 Prinja et al. [42] Peer-led counseling, condom promotion, quarterly health check-up, STI treatment, and HAART 6583 106 (US$ 2009)/HIV infection averted and 11 (US$ 2009)/DALY averted 53 509/HIV infection averted
 Aldridge et al. [31] Peer counselling and STI treatment including condom distribution 13,044 55 (US$ 2008)/DALY averted 130 NA
 Panovska-Griffiths et al. [41] Peer mediated communications strategies, social marketing of condoms and management of STI; and enabling environment for the adoption of safer sex practices 6583 720 (US$ 2007)/HIV infection averted 173a 3463/HIV infection averted
 Dandona et al. [35] Behaviour change communication, STIs care, condom promotion, and creating an enabling environment 6583 984 (US$ 2005)/HIV infection averted 227 5868/HIV infection averted
 Vickerman et al. [47] Mobile clinic with syndromic screening and treatment of STIs, condom distribution, health education with and without periodic presumptive treatment in hotels 13,248 78 (US$ 2001)/DALY averted and 2093 (US$ 2001)/HIV infection averted 301 8063/HIV infection averted
 You et al. [49] STI testing, education, condom distribution, negotiation skills, video presentation, role plays, and peer group discussions 58,651 10,315 (US$ 2002)/gonorrhea or chlamydia infection averted 959a 19,175/gonorrhea or chlamydia infection averted
  1. Hogan et al. study [37] was not inserted into the table as it was provided modeled estimates for two WHO regions and it was difficult to convert these estimated to 2016 international dollar
  2. GDP gross domestic product, INT international dollar, VCT voluntary counselling and testing, PPTCT prevention of parent to child transmission, HAART  highly-active anti-retroviral therapy
  3. aEstimated ratio. For studies that cost per DALY averted was not available, it was assumed that cost per DALY averted was equal to cost per infection averted divided by 20 [16, 28, 29]