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Table 1 Descriptive statistics

From: A pilot study on patient-related costs and factors associated with the cost of specialist palliative care in the hospital: first steps towards a patient classification system in Germany

Episode type Palliative care unit (N = 30) Consultation (N = 114)
na (%a)/mean ± SD na (%a)/mean ± SD
Age 30 68.9 ± 13.5 114 66.2 ± 13.3
Sex
 Male 15 (50%) 56 (49.1%)
 Female 15 (50%) 58 (50.9%)
Major diagnosis
 Oncological 25 (88.9%) 98 (87.4%)
 Lung disease 1 (0.9%)
 Liver disease 1 (3.7%) 3 (2.7%)
 Heart disease 2 (7.4%) 8 (7.2%)
 Other 2 (1.8%)
Length of hospital stay (days) 30 9.4 ± 8.2 114 6.2 ± 5.3
Episode length (days)b 30 9.4 ± 8.2 114 2.8 ± 3.0
AKPS at beginning of episode 30 31.7 ± 15.1 111 44.1 ± 22.1
AKPS at end of episode 30 28.0 ± 14.2 111 38.4 ± 22.1
IPOS at beginning of episodec 14 29.7 ± 7.1 12 25.1 ± 6.8
IPOS at end of episodec 13 29.2 ± 8.0 32 24.8 ± 7.6
Phase of illness at beginning of the episode
 Stable 9 (30.0%) 56 (50.5%)
 Unstable 12 (40.0%) 23 (20.7%)
 Deteriorating 8 (26.7%) 26 (23.4%)
 Terminal 1 (3.3%) 6 (5.4%)
Phase of illness at end of episode
 Stable 12 (40%) 30 (27.0%)
 Unstable 6 (20%) 32 (28.8%)
 Deteriorating 7 (23.3%) 35 (34.5%)
 Terminal 5 (16.7%) 14 (12.6%)
Consciousness at beginning of episode
 Alert 26 (86.7%) 61 (89.7%)
 Somnolent 3 (10.0%) 3 (10.0%)
 Stuporous 1 (3.3%)
 Comatose 1 (3.3%) 5 (16.7%)
Consciousness at end of episode
 Alert 21 (70.0%) 85 (81.7%)
 Somnolent 4 (5.9%) 8 (7.7%)
 Stuporous 3 (2.9%)
 Comatose 1 (3.3%) 8 (7.7%)
Number of SPC professions 30 5.8 ± 1.7 114 3.3 ± 1.7
Combinations of involved SPC professions involved
 Physician or nurse 40 (35.5%)
 Physician and nurse (p&n) 6 (5.3%)
 (p&n) + 1 other 4 (13.3%) 15 (13.2%)
 (p&n) + 2 others 3 (10.0%) 33 (29.0%)
 (p&n) + 3 others 4 (13.3%) 18 (15.8%)
 (p&n) + 4 others 8 (26.7%) 1 (0.9%)
 (p&n) + 5 others 5 (16.7%)  
 (p&n) + 6 others 6 (20.0%)  
Type of discharge
 Home 4 (14.8%) 41 (35.7%)
 Hospital 3 (11.1%) 33 (29.0%)
 Nursing home 1 (3.7%) 1 (0.9%)
 Hospice 6 (22.2%) 1 (0.9%)
 Deceased 13 (48.2%) 24 (21.1%)
 Other 14 (12.3%)
  1. AKPS: Australian Karnofsky Performance Score; SPC: specialist palliative care; IPOS: Integrated Palliative Care Outcome Score
  2. aNumber/percentage of non-missing observations
  3. bWe defined episode length as length of stay at hospital for palliative care unit episodes and, for consultation episodes, as maximum of 1 day or the lower bound of the time range specified by the procedure code relevant to specialist palliative care
  4. cObservations with no missing values for any dimension