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Table 6 Determinants of catastrophic health expenditures in Kosovo, 2014

From: Catastrophic expenditures and impoverishment due to out-of-pocket health payments in Kosovo

Variable Odds ratio Standard error T p > |t| 95% confidence interval
HCE expenditure quintilea
 Quintile 1 vs 5 2.466 0.487 4.57 0.001 1.675 3.633
 Quintile 2 vs 5 1.661 0.328 2.57 0.010 1.128 2.445
 Quintile 3 vs 5 0.922 0.193 − 0.39 0.696 0.612 1.388
 Quintile 4 vs 5 0.897 0.186 − 0.52 0.601 0.597 1.347
Age of the household head 1.011 0.005 2.03 0.042 1.000 1.021
Household size 0.807 0.029 − 6.06 0.001 0.753 0.865
Member under 5 years old in the household 1.133 0.178 0.80 0.425 0.833 1.541
Member over 65 years old in the household 1.971 0.283 4.73 0.001 1.488 2.612
At least one employed member in the household 0.981 0.155 − 0.12 0.904 0.719 1.338
Disabled member in the household in previous 12 months 2.819 0.599 4.88 0.001 1.859 4.276
Insurance coverage of household head 0.275 0.092 − 3.87 0.001 0.143 0.528
Education level of household head 1.113 0.148 0.81 0.419 0.858 1.445
Constant 0.134 0.060 − 4.5 0.001 0.056 0.322
  1. OOP health payments divided by HCE ≥ 10%
  2. aQuintile 1 has the lowest consumption expenditures and quintile 5 the highest