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Table 1 Outline of the variables used in the regression analysis

From: Catastrophic expenditures and impoverishment due to out-of-pocket health payments in Kosovo

Independent variable Description Measurement
Household size Total number of people living in the household Continuous variable
Education Level of education of the head of the household Dummy variable:
0 = primary or lower
1 = secondary or higher
Most vulnerable age groups At least one or more members of the household under 5 years of age Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
At least one or more members of the household 65 or older Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
Gender Gender of the household head Dummy variable: 1 = male, 2 = female
Health insurance coverage At least one member of the household is covered by health insurance Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
Head of the household is covered by health insurance Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
Employment* At least one employed member in the household Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
At least one unemployed member in the household Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
At least one inactive (not defined as employed or unemployed) member in the household Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
At least one disabled member in the household Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
Employment status of the head of the household Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
Payment for inpatient care Has any member of the household paid for inpatient care in the past 12 months? Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
Settlement Is household in urban or rural area? Dummy variable: 1 = rural, 0 = urban
Expenditure quintiles in PPP-adjusted Euros Households ranked in five equal groups according to annual HCE per adult equivalent (excluding durable goods and rent) in increasing order to the expenditure cutoff point in each quintile Ordinal: Lowest = 14.69–222.32
II = 222.48–291.58
III = 291.74–364.73 IV = 364.83–474.86
Highest = 474.95–1885.90
Health care utilization At least one member of the household was hospitalized during the previous 12 months Dummy variable: 1 = yes, 0 = no
  1. * HBS activity variable with the longest duration during the previous 12 months [32]