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Table 2 Summary of findings

From: Accounting for equity considerations in cost-effectiveness analysis: a systematic review of rotavirus vaccine in low- and middle-income countries

Indicator Number incorporating the indicator into analysisa Indicator framed in study objectivea Summary of methods used and example Number of articles incorporating equity indicator in outcomea,b
Severity of illness at the individual level 45 (75%) 0 Results split into severity subgroups
Example: number of events and costs averted for inpatients and outpatients
33 (55%)
Age distribution of the disease 42 (70%) 0 Including an age distribution function showing the incidence and costs by age 2 (3%)
Presence of comorbidities 3 (5%) 0 By calculating proxies for physical susceptibility of being infected
Example: weighting for age Z-score [49] or establishing an individual risk model [54]
Household income level 5 (8%) 3 (5%) Results divided by wealth quintile
Example: dividing each of the following by Wealth Quintile: Number of deaths averted [56], private expenditure averted [48], or estimated burden due to RV illness [54]
4 (7%)
Relative coverage 18 (30%) 0 Including an adjustment factor for effective coverage
Example: Diop et al. [50] divided the coverage in the lowest quintile by the coverage in the entire population
Geographic location 16 (27%) 6 (10%) Results differentiated between rural and urban or divided by state or province
Example: deaths averted, OOP expenditure averted and government costs for each rural and urban settings [33]
3 (5%)
Sex at birth 3 (5%) 1 (1.6%) Input data are differentiated by sex
Example: population data by sex, disease incidence and case-fatality rates by sex [53]
Loss of productivity 27 (45%) 0 Including costs due to caretakers taking time off from work in the calculation of costs incurred by society 0
Age 26 (43%) 0 DALYs age weighting 0
Financial risk protection (FRP) 3 (5%) 3 (5%) Through an Extended Cost-Effectiveness analysis
Example: calculating a money-metric value of FRP provided by the program [56]
3 (5%)
Reliance on OOP expenditure 35 (58%) 1 (1.6%) Differentiating the costs incurred by society (societal perspective)
Example: calculating the medical and non-medical costs incurred [47]
23 (38%)
  1. an = 60
  2. bAll the studies having mentioned equity in their study objectives have incorporated at least one indicator in their analysis