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Table 1 Model inputs: baseline demographics (ITT populations), drug costs and resource costs

From: Cost-effectiveness of umeclidinium compared with tiotropium and glycopyrronium as monotherapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a UK perspective

Parameters Analysis 1 (UMEC vs TIO) Analysis 2 (UMEC vs GLY)
Female, % 28.0 32.0
Age (years), mean (SE) 64.2 (0.3) 64.1 (0.3)
BMI, %
 Low 10.0 10.0
 Medium 65.0 61.0
 High 25.0 29.0
Any CVD comorbidity, % 64.0 68.0
Any other comorbidity, % 87.0 89.0
No prior exacerbations at baseline, % 69.0 69.0
mMRC score ≥ 2, % 100.0 100.0
Current smokers, % 51.0 47.0
Height (cm), mean (SE) 169.3 (0.3) 168.8 (0.3)
Number of exacerbations in previous year, mean (SE) 0.42 (0.02) 0.40 (0.02)
Number of severe exacerbations, mean 0.13 0.11
Baseline SGRQ score (units), mean (SE) 45.2 (0.6) 44.7 (0.5)
Derived baseline utility, mean 0.730 0.733
Baseline FEV1 % predicted, mean (SE) 50.7 (0.3) 50.5 (0.3)
Fibrinogen (mcg/dL), mean (SE)a 459.5 (2.37) 461.5 (2.37)
6MWT distance (m)a 362.9 361.05
Relative treatment effects (UMEC vs comparator)b
 FEV1 increment (mL), mean (SE) 53.0 (14.3) 33.0 (14.3)
 SGRQ change (units), mean (SE) − 0.5 (0.8) − 0.6 (0.8)
Daily drug costs (£)
 UMEC 0.92 0.92
 Reference drug TIO: 1.16 GLY: 0.92
Hospital costs (£)c
 ICU (cost/day) 1260 1260
 General ward (cost/day) 402 402
 COPD-related hospitalisation (cost per episode) 1420 1420
 ER visit (cost per visit) 187 187
 Outpatient visit (initial visit) 199 199
 Outpatient visit (subsequent visit) 147 147
Physician visit costs (£)d
 Day time home visit 128 128
 Night time home visit 128 (assumption) 128 (assumption)
 Visit to physician’s office 65 65
 Telephone consultation 27 27
  1. Baseline demographics for each treatment arm were pooled in each analysis. Cost data are presented to three significant figures
  2. 6MWT 6-min walk test, BMI body mass index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, ER emergency room, FEV 1 forced expiratory volume in 1 s, GLY glycopyrronium, ICU intensive care unit, ITT intent-to-treat, Mmrc modified Medical Research Council, NHS National Health Service, SE standard error, SGRQ St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, TIO tiotropium, UMEC umeclidinium
  3. a Baseline fibrinogen and 6MWT distance were not available in the trial data but were predicted based on risk equations
  4. b To avoid double-counting of treatment effects an iterative approach was used to adjust the magnitude of the SGRQ treatment effect entered into the model. This ensured that the predicted clinical outcomes matched the observed trial data
  5. c Department of Health, NHS Reference costs 2014–2015 [33]
  6. d Personal Social Services Research Unit. Unit costs of health & social care [32]