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Table 9 Comparison with previously published models on the cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in Germany

From: Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination in Germany

Study Type of model Type of economic analysis Economic outcome measure Diseases included Vaccination strategy Perspective Duration of protection Results (€/QALY or BCR) Funding source
Present study Dynamic CEAa; CUA ICER (€/QALY)a CIN, cervical cancer, and genital warts Bivalent and quadrivalent vaccination of females and males (2 and 3 doses; 50% coverage) Health care payer and society 20 years 13,248–34,249 (bivalent vaccination of females)b; cost-saving to 14,711 (quadrivalent vaccination of females)b; 77,607–130,449 (additional bivalent vaccination of males)b; 68,118–117,240 (additional quadrivalent vaccination of males)b Independent
Hillemanns et al. [69] Static CEAa; CUA ICER (€/QALY)a CIN, cervical cancer, and genital warts Quadrivalent vaccination of females (3 doses; 80% coverage) Health care payer Lifelong 10,530 Industry
20 years 19,445
Kotsopoulos et al. [66] Static CBA BCR CIN, cervical cancer, vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, anal cancer, and genital warts Quadrivalent vaccination of females and males (2 doses; 55% coverage) Society Not reported 3.3 (vaccination of females); 0.3 (vaccination of male); 1.8 (vaccination of males and females) Industry
Schobert et al. [67] Dynamic CEAa; CUA ICER (€/QALY)a CIN, cervical cancer, and genital warts Quadrivalent vaccination of females (3 doses; 45–55% coverage) Health care payer Lifelong 5525 Industry
20 years About 10,000
Soergel et al. [68] Static CEAa; CUA ICER (€/QALY)a Neonatal morbidity and mortality due to conisation-associated prematurity Bivalent vaccination of females (3 doses; 30–90% coverage) Not reported Lifelong 43,505–47,885c Independent
  1. BCR benefit–cost ratio, CBA cost–benefit analysis, CEA cost-effectiveness analysis, CUA cost-utility analysis, CIN cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, QALY quality-adjusted life year
  2. aCEA results are not presented in the table
  3. bDepending on the perspective and the number of doses
  4. cDepending on the utility values