Skip to main content

Table 6 Estimated economic impacts of no vaccination, PCV13 2+1 and PHiD-CV 2+1 vaccination programs

From: Cost-effectiveness analysis of a universal mass vaccination program with a PHiD-CV 2+1 schedule in Malaysia

  No vaccination PCV13 PHiD-CV PHiD-CV versus no vaccination PHiD-CV versus PCV13
Undiscounted costs (USD)      
 Vaccination costs 0 52,119,711 52,119,681 +52,119,681 –30
 Acute episode costs
  IPD 2945,307 1,553,212 1,602,129 –1,343,178 +48,917
   Meningitis 1,753,066 914,936 944,383 –808,683 +29,447
   Bacteremia 1,192,241 638,276 657,746 –534,495 +19,470
  All-cause pneumonia 106,306,148 99,249,563 99,249,006 –7,057,142 –557
  AOM 108,394,044 100,136,093 94,366,242 –14,027,802 –5,769,851
 Total direct costs 217,645,499 253,058,579 247,337,058 +29,691,559 –5,721,521
 QALYs 4,590,144 4,591,267 4,591,392 +1,248 +125
 ICER     23,792 PHiD-CV dominant
Discounted costs (USD)a
 Total direct costs 190,226,159 226,321,520 221,112,241 +30,886,082 –5,209,279
 QALYs 3,979,331 3,980,299 3,980,415 +1084 +116
 ICER 28,497 (cost-effective) PHiD-CV dominant
  1. Costs are in 2014 USD
  2. AOM acute otitis media, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, IPD invasive pneumococcal disease, PCV13 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PHiD-CV pneumococcal polysaccharide and NTHi protein D conjugate vaccine, QALY quality-adjusted life-year, USD United States dollars
  3. In Malaysia over 10 years for a birth cohort of 508,774
  4. aDiscounted at 3% per annum [23]