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Table 4 Annual cost, annual health benefits and cost-effectiveness ratio of selected CVD interventions in Ethiopia

From: Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis

Intervention description Annual cost in million US$ Annual DALYs averted (discounted) Annual DALYs averted (undiscounted) ACER ICER
Acute myocardial infarction
 ACE-inhibitor 2.37 316 422 7531 Dominated
 Beta-blocker 2.38 586 784 4057 Dominated
 ASA 2.38 990 1325 2200 Dominated
 Streptokinase 2.82 1170 1566 2408 Dominated
 ASA + clopidogrel 2.38 1441 1927 1556 Dominated
 ASA + streptokinase 2.84 2110 2822 1295 Dominated
 ASA + streptokinase + ACE-inhibitor 2.85 2396 3205 1149 Dominated
 Primary PCI 8.29 2747 3675 3013 Dominated
 ASA + streptokinase + ACE-inhibitor + beta-blocker 2.92 2919 3905 999 999
 ASA + clopidogrel + PCI 8.5 4015 5370 2115 5087
Acute stroke
 ASA 2.53 63 80 39,892 39,892
Post-acute IHD
 ASA 2.54 245 330 10,345 Dominated
 Statin 2.74 310 417 8822 Dominated
 Beta-blocker 2.53 488 657 5177 Dominated
 ACE-inhibitor 2.55 524 705 4857 Dominated
 ASA + beta-blocker 2.57 732 985 3511 Dominated
 ASA + beta-blocker + statin 2.82 1038 1397 2717 Dominated
 ASA + beta-blocker + statin + ACE-inhibitor 2.88 1557 2096 1849 1849
Post-acute stroke
 ACE-inhibitor 2.87 912 1200 3153 Dominated
 ASA 2.86 1013 1348 2821 Dominated
 Statin 3.30 1375 1813 2396 Dominated
 ASA + statin 3.40 2382 3150 1428 Dominated
 ASA + statin + ACE-inhibitor 3.48 3284 4337 1061 1061
Primary prevention of IHD and stroke
 Cholesterol lowering treatment for total chol. >6.2 mmol/l 4.67 8768 15,913 532 Dominated
 Cholesterol lowering treatment for total chol. >5.7 mmol/l 10.62 19,073 34,143 557 Dominated
 Anti-hypertension treatment for SBP >160 mmHg 7.33 98,880 172,868 74 Dominated
 Combination drug treatment for absolute risk of CVD >35 % 7.18 107,687 185,249 67 67
 Anti-hypertension treatment for SBP >140 mmHg 19.42 125,712 220,992 154 Dominated
 Combination drug treatment for absolute risk of CVD >25 % 9.83 127,957 219,230 77 131
 Combination drug treatment for absolute risk of CVD >15 % 14.41 153,877 263,747 94 177
 Combination drug treatment for absolute risk of CVD >5 % 26.85 190,391 329,117 141 341