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Table 4 Results: Cost-effectiveness of HPV-vaccination in Denmark including protection against genital cancer and head & neck cancer

From: Revisiting the cost-effectiveness of universal HPV-vaccination in Denmark accounting for all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-related diseases in males and females

  Average incremental vaccination costs per year (€, PV) Average savings in treatment costs per year (€, PV) Average incremental cost per year (€, PV) Average LYG (PV) Average QALYs gained (PV) ICER (€/LYG) ICER (€/QALY) Average number of cases avoided per year
Vaccinations of girls vs. screening alone:         
Base case result* 11,504,613 9,480,325 2,024,288 528.5 565.3 3,830 3,581  
  Cervical cancer         197
  Anogenital cancer         80
  Head and neck cancer         43
Univariate sensitivity analysis:         
Discount rate 0% 11,504,613 19,622,317 - 8,117,704 1,706.5 1,645.5 Dominance Dominance  
Discount rate 5% 11,504,613 6,603,582 4,901,031 265.3 312.5 18,476 15,682  
Costs discounted with 3% and LYG & QALYs with 0% 11,504,613 9,480,325 2,024,288 1,706.5 1,645.5 1,186 1,230  
Vaccine price reduced by 25% 8,967,267 9,480,325 −513,058 528.5 565.3 Dominance Dominance  
2-dose regime 8,121,485 9,480,325 −1,358,840 528.5 565.3 Dominance Dominance  
Treatment cost reduced by 25% 11,504,613 7,055,464 4,449,149 528.5 565.3 8,418 7,870  
Time horizon 40 years 11,504,613 8,450,127 3,054,486 425.2 472.2 7,184 6,469  
Bivalent HPV vaccination (HPV types 16 & 18) 11,504,613 5,269,690 6,234,923 528.5 505.1 11,797 12,345  
Protection against head and neck cancer excluded: 11,504,613 9,159,308 2,345,305 432.1 470.4 5,428 4,985  
 70% vaccination rate 9,474,387 9,320,914 153,473 489.2 551.9 314 278  
  Cervical cancer         192
  Anogenital cancer         77
  Head and neck cancer         42
Vaccination of girls & boys vs. girls:         
Base case result** 11,858,601 1,186,760 10,671,841 263 256 40,615 41,636  
  Cervical cancer         5
  Anogenital cancer         34
  Head and neck cancer         98
Univariate sensitivity analysis:         
Discount rate 0% 11,858,601 4,298,652 7,559,950 889 863 8,500 8,763  
Discount rate 5% 11,858,601 587,457 11,271,144 124 122 90,704 92,015  
Vaccine price reduced by 25% 9,243,183 1,186,760 8,056,423 263 256 30,661 31,432  
2-dose regime 8,371,377 1,186,760 7,184,617 263 256 27,343 28,031  
Time horizon 40 years 11,858,601 1,194,383 10,664,218 239 225 44,674 47,342  
Protection against head and neck cancer excluded 1,858,601 459,212 11,399,389 42 41 269,857 276,642  
70% vaccination rate 9,765,907 1,281,863 8,484,044 301 268 28,146 31,615  
  1. 2008 price level.
  2. *Vaccination over 62 years (implying that the incremental costs and effects are calculated as an average over the 62 years, assuming vaccination from the first year and onward) of 12-year-old girls compared to screening alone, 85% vaccination rate, discount rate 3%, 100% vaccine efficacy, vaccine price: € 123 per dose ex. VAT (=market price, source www.promedicin.dk, 10th of May, 2012).
  3. **Vaccination over 62 years of 12-year-old girls and boys compared to 12-year-old girls alone, 85% vaccination rate, discount rate 3%, 100% vaccine efficacy, vaccine price: € 123 per dose ex. VAT (=market price, source www.promedicin.dk, 10th of May, 2012).
  4. PV: present value; QALY: quality-adjusted life-year; ICER: incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; LYG: life-year gained.