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Table 2 Economic evaluations of interventions to reduce mother to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV: study perspective and costs

From: The cost-effectiveness of preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review

Study Perspective 1 Cost Year & Currency Discount Rate 2 Cost Breakdown
     Direct costs to the public payer Indirect costs
     Intervention costs 3 Costs generated or offset 4 Health system strengthening 5  
[32] SOC 1994 US$ 5% Standard6 LMC7 (HIV+ children)   Productivity loss due to premature mortality (HIV+ve children)
  PPHC 1994 US$ 5% Standard LMC (HIV+ children)   
[33] PPHC US$ 5% Standard LMC (HIV+ children)   
[29] PPHC 1997 US$ 3%; 6% Standard + Training   Increased health human resources  
[34] PPHC US$ 3% Standard Net LMC (HIV+ children)   
[30] PPHC 1998 US$ 5% Standard + Formula feed Net LMC (HIV+ children)   
[35] PPHC 1999 US 3% Standard LMC (HIV+ children)   
[37] PPHC 1997 Rand Not stated Standard + Training    
[36] PPHC 2000 US$ Not stated Drugs    
[23] PPHC 2001 US$ 5% Standard+ Formula feed Elective caesarean LMC (HIV+ children)& HIV+ adults8)   
[25] PPHC 2000 US$ 3% Standard LMC (HIV+ children) Human resource capacity and infrastructure  
[31] PPHC 2003 US$ 5% Standard + Formula Feed LMC (HIV+ children)   
[27] PPHC 2003 US$ 5% Standard + Formula Feed LMC (HIV+ children) Treatment costs for NVP resistance (mothers)   
[22] PPHC 2006 Indian Rupees 5% Standard LMC (HIV+ children)   
[24] PPHC 2000 US$ n/a9 Standard + Family planning   Program administration costs  
[28] PPHC 2003 US$ 3% Standard + Formula Feed LMC (HIV+ children)   
[26] Not stated US$ Not stated Standard    
[38] PPHC US$ n/a Standard    
[40] Not stated 2007 US$ n/a Standard + programme overhead    
[39] PRO 2007 US$ 3% Standard    
  PPHC 2007 US$ 3% Standard LMC (HIV+ children)   
  1. 1SOC = Societal (considers direct and indirect costs); PPHC = Public payer of healthcare costs (considers direct costs only); PRO = Provider (considers direct medical costs covered by the facility)
  2. 2Rates listed apply to both costs and effects.
  3. 3All studies included salary costs. Some were included as components of VCT while others constitute a separate category.
  4. 4Costs of care for HIV+ individuals averted due to the intervention or additional care required as a result of the intervention (i.e. due to adverse effects)
  5. 5Items considered by authors include start up costs such as training of personnel and investment in health system infrastructure, and ongoing costs such as the costs of central programme administration.
  6. 6 "Standard" costs include staff time, drugs and HIV testing.
  7. 7LMC = lifetime medical costs
  8. 8Included to quantify cost savings associated with the impact of VCT on sexual behavior change and horizontal transmission
  9. 9n/a = non applicable