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Table 1 Inclusion criteria

From: The economics of primary prevention of cardiovascular disease – a systematic review of economic evaluations

Contentual features:
   ■ Studies evaluating primary prevention activities targeted at cardiovascular event or risk reduction, i.e., prevention of the disease before it occurs for the first time;
   ■ Objective: Screening for and modification of risk factors for primary cardiovascular events;
   ■ Population: Persons at increased risk but without evidence of cardiovascular disease;
   ■ Endpoints: Cardiovascular outcomes/events or modified risk factor;
Formal features:
   ■ Full economic evaluation, i.e., comparative analysis of costs and outcomes of at least two alternatives;
   ■ Applied study (trial generating primary data or modelling of secondary data). Methodological and general articles, letters and abstracts were excluded;
   ■ Assessment of, or application to the US, Canadian or European health care systems;
   ■ Journal articles, i.e., exclusion of books, HTA reports, grey literature;
   ■ Published between 1995–2005.