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Table 1 Quarterly healthcare utilisation and total costs in each health state including antiretrovirals and associated laboratory investigations (US$)

From: The cost-effectiveness of Antiretroviral Treatment in Khayelitsha, South Africa – a primary data analysis

Health state Clinic visits Inpatient days Tuberculosis treatment ARV Cost
(95% CI)
Safety and monitoring laboratory costs Cost per Markov state
(95%CI)
Additional cost for dying patients
  Mean visits
(95%CI)
Cost
(95%CI)
Mean IP days
(95%CI)
Cost
(95%CI)
Mean cases
(95%CI)
Cost
(95%CI)
    Mean IP days
(95%CI)
Cost
(95%CI)
ART CD4 < 50 cells/μl months 0–3 10.5
(10.2–10.7)
199
(194–204)
1.09
(0.96–1.25)
177
(155–201)
0.08
(0.05–0.12)
48
(30–76)
72.7
(70.2–75.1)
52 548
(502–609)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
ART CD4 < 50 cells/μl months 3–6 3.7
(3.5–3.8)
70
(67–73)
0.77
(0.66–0.90)
125
(107–146)
0.04
(0.02–0.08)
25
(13–49)
72.7
(70.2–75.1)
0 293
(257–343)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
ART CD4 50–199 cells/μl months 0–3 9.7
(9.5–9.9)
184
(181–188)
0.6
(0.52–0.7)
98
(84–114)
0.06
(0.04–0.1)
38
(24–60)
72.7
(70.2–75.1)
52 444
(410–488)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
ART CD4 50–199 cells/μl months 3–6 3.5
(3.3–3.6)
66
(64–68)
0.12
(0.09–0.17)
20
(14–27)
0.02
(0.01–0.04)
11
(4–26)
72.7
(70.2–75.1)
0 169
(152–196)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
First-line ART months 6–12 3.6
(3.5–3.7)
69
(67–70)
0.21
(0.18–0.24)
33
(29–39)
0.02
(0.01–0.03)
13
(8–21)
72.7
(70.2–75.1)
24 212
(198–229)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
Second-line ART months 6–12 3.6
(3.5–3.7)
69
(67–70)
0.21
(0.18–0.24)
33
(29–39)
0.02
(0.01–0.03)
13
(8–21)
238 28 381
(370–397)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
First-line ART months 12–24 2.7
(2.65–2.8)
52
(50–53)
0.1
(0.08–0.13)
17
(14–20)
0.02
(0.01–0.03)
12
(8–20)
72.7
(70.2–75.1)
24 178
(167–193)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
Second-line ART months 12–24 2.7
(2.65–2.8)
52
(50–53)
0.1
(0.08–0.13)
17
(14–20)
0.02
(0.01–0.03)
12
(8–20)
238 28 347
(338–360)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
First-line ART months 24–36 2.6
(2.5–2.7)
49
(47–51)
0.1
(0.08–0.13)
17
(14–20)
0.02
(0.01–0.03)
12
(8–20)
72.7
(70.2–75.1)
24 175
(164–191)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
Second-line ART months 24–36 2.6
(2.5–2.7)
49
(47–51)
0.1
(0.08–0.13)
17
(14–20)
0.02
(0.01–0.03)
12
(8–20)
238 28 344
(335–358)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
First-line ART beyond 36 months 2.8
(2.6–3.0)
52
(49–56)
0.1
(0.08–0.13)
17
(14–20)
0.02
(0.01–0.03)
12
(8–20)
72.7
(70.2–75.1)
24 179
(165–196)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
Second-line ART beyond 36 months 2.8
(2.6–3.0)
52
(49–56)
0.1
(0.08–0.13)
17
(14–20)
0.02
(0.01–0.03)
12
(8–20)
238 28 348
(337–363)
4.0
(1.7–6.2)
704
(306–1102)
No-ART CD4 < 50 cells/μl 3.4
(3.2–3.5)
66
(63–68)
0.7
(0.64–0.75)
113
(104–122)
0.1
(0.07–0.13)
60
(46–79)
N/A N/A 239
(213–269)
5.7
(3.5–8.0)
1023
(626–1422)
No-ART CD4 50–199 cells/μl 2.6
(2.5–2.6)
51
(49–52)
0.3
(0.28–0.32)
49
(45–52)
0.07
(0.06–0.09)
45
(37–55)
N/A N/A 145
(132–159)
5.7
(3.5–8.0)
1023
(626–1422)
  1. IP: Inpatient days