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Table 3 Frequency of Use of Pain Medications

From: Resource use among patients with diabetes, diabetic neuropathy, or diabetes with depression

Pain Medications Diabetes (N = 55,972) Diabetic Neuropathy (N = 2,146) Diabetes and Depression (N = 2,379) P-Value
  N % N % N % DM v DN DM v DD DN v DD
Antidepressants          
   SSRI 3,376 6.03 536 24.98 1,346 56.58 * * *
   Tricyclic 1,884 3.37 366 17.05 354 14.88 * * **
   Venlafaxine 271 0.48 58 2.70 216 9.08 * * *
   Bupropion 750 1.34 109 5.08 333 14.00 * * *
   Other Antidepressant 641 1.15 127 5.92 414 17.40 * * *
   Any Antidepressant 5,979 10.68 887 41.33 1,715 72.09 * * *
Anticonvulsant          
   Gabapentin 867 1.55 286 13.33 197 8.28 * * *
   Other Anticonvulsant 911 1.63 137 6.38 273 11.48 * * *
   Any Anticonvulsant 1,669 2.98 388 18.08 414 17.40 * * 0.4693
Skeletal-Muscle Relaxants 3,623 6.47 349 16.26 404 16.98 * * 0.6165
Non-Narcotics 1,018 1.82 88 4.10 134 5.63 * * **
Narcotics          
   Oxycodone 2,789 4.98 370 17.24 353 14.84 * * ***
   Tramadol 1,043 1.86 129 6.01 144 6.05 * * 0.9949
   Codeine 3,128 5.59 300 13.98 306 12.86 * * 0.2611
   Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen 5,545 9.91 528 24.60 645 27.11 * * ***
   Proxyphene 3,374 6.03 350 16.31 369 15.51 * * 0.5303
   Other Narcotics 1,051 1.88 121 5.64 150 6.31 * * 0.2740
   Any Narcotics 12,383 22.12 1,065 44.63 1,152 48.42 * * 0.6036
NSAIDs          
   Cox-2 4,445 7.94 355 16.54 407 17.11 * * 0.7753
   Other NSAID 10,005 17.88 761 35.46 823 34.59 * * 0.7367
   Any NSAID 12,839 22.94 938 43.71 1,040 43.72 * * 1.00
  1. *P-value ≤ 0.0001; **P-value ≤ 0.001; ***P-value ≤ 0.05
  2. P values based on Tukey-Kramer method to adjust for multiple comparisons.