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Table 1 Patient Characteristics

From: Resource use among patients with diabetes, diabetic neuropathy, or diabetes with depression

Patient Characteristic Diabetes (N = 55,972) Diabetic Neuropathy (N = 2,146) Diabetes and Depression (N = 2,379) P-Values
  Mean Std Dev Mean Std Dev Mean Std Dev DM v DN DM v DD DN v DD
Mean Age 46.67 15.53 50.69 13.35 47.05 12.99 * 0.4626 *
Sex N % N % N %    
   Female 27,229 48.65 1,043 48.60 1,501 6.39 0.9991 * *
   Male 28,743 51.35 1,103 51.40 878 36.91 0.9991 * *
Region          
   East 12,134 21.68 273 12.72 282 11.85 * * 0.7533
   Midwest 17,044 30.45 813 37.88 1,100 46.24 * * *
   South 21,468 38.35 902 42.03 592 24.88 *** * *
   West 5,362 9.52 158 7.36 405 17.02 *** * *
Payment Type          
   Commercial 17,820 31.84 670 31.22 875 36.78 0.8196 * **
   Medicaid 1,143 2.04 45 2.10 188 7.90 0.9846 * *
   Medicaid Risk 4,158 7.43 242 11.28 137 5.76 * *** *
   Self-Insured 10,748 19.20 249 11.60 189 7.94 * * ***
   Other 22,103 37.49 940 43.80 990 41.61 ** 0.0952 0.2898
Comorbidities          
   Hypertension 13,578 24.27 975 45.43 1,076 48.23 * * 0.9863
   Hyperlipidemia 5,354 9.57 440 20.50 494 20.77 * * 0.9549
   Cardiovascular Disease 4,457 7.96 565 26.33 494 20.77 * * *
   Ischemic Heart Disease 2,737 4.89 342 15.94 313 13.16 * * *
   Obesity 1,668 2.98 130 6.06 236 9.92 * * *
   Retinopathy 910 1.63 299 13.93 168 7.06 * * *
   Cataracts 840 1.50 119 5.55 109 4.58 * * ***
   Diabetic Retinopathy 787 1.41 281 13.09 150 6.31 * * *
   Nephropathy 374 0.67 110 5.13 60 2.52 * * *
   Osteoporosis 372 0.66 43 2.00 46 1.93 * * 0.9603
   Arteriosclerosis 259 0.46 86 4.01 42 1.77 * * *
   Blindness 45 0.08 8 0.37 7 0.29 * *** 0.6792
   Gangrene 37 0.07 32 1.49 8 0.34 * ** *
   Dialysis 15 0.04 8 0.37 3 0.13 * 0.0572 **
  1. *P-value ≤ 0.0001; **P-value ≤ 0.001; ***P-value ≤ 0.05.
  2. P values based on Tukey-Kramer method to adjust for multiple comparisons.