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Table 1 Parameter estimates and their probability distributions used to populate the model

From: The impact of incorporating Bayesian network meta-analysis in cost-effectiveness analysis - a case study of pharmacotherapies for moderate to severe COPD

Parameter Assumed input value at GOLD stages Assumed probability distribution at GOLD stages
II III II III
Annual COPD mortality [20] 0.00393 0.006762 -- --
Utility and disutilities [19]   
Baseline 0.72 0.67 B(160, 62) B(59, 29)
Minor exacerbation 0.658 0.475 B(164, 85) B(47, 52)
Major exacerbation 0.447 0.408 B(22, 27) B(39, 57)
Exacerbations rates and probabilities [19]    
Frequency 1.22 1.47 Γ(14884, 12200) Γ(21609, 14700)
Minor (%) 0.93 0.90 Γ(8649, 9300) Γ(8100, 9000)
Major (%) 0.07 0.10 Γ(12.25, 175) Γ(25, 250)
Minor exacerbation 80$ 134$ Γ(320, 4) Γ(536, 4)
Major exacerbation 3250$ 5417$ Γ(13000, 4) Γ(21668, 4)
Indirect maintenance cost [20] 215$ 524$ Γ(860, 4) Γ(2096, 4)
Direct exacerbations costs ($) [19]     
Minor exacerbations 161$ Γ(644, 4)
Major exacerbations 6501$ Γ(26004, 4)
General practitioner visit 70$ Γ(280, 4)
Specialist visit 90$ Γ(360, 4)
Direct medication costs ($) [ [22]    
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) 450$ --
Long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) 500$ --
ICS + LABA 1000$ --
Long-acting muscarinic agents 750$ --