# Table 1 Summary of systematic review result

Study Comparator Intervention Evaluated Form of economic analyses Perspective taken Model used Time horizon Outcome measure
Jones et al. [11]†    Cost utility (N = 12) Cost benefit (N = 1)   Behavioural models using simplified Bernoulli process (N = 4) simulated the transmission (N = 2) the theory of needle circulation originally developed by Kaplan and O’Keefe (N = 4)   HIV incidence (N = 11) HCV incidence (N = 1) HIV and HCV incidence (N = 1)
Connock et al. [12]†    Cost–utility (N = 5) Societal perspective (N = 5) healthcare system (N = 6) Markov (N = 3) Dynamic (N = 3) Monte Carlo (N = 1)   QALY (N = 6)
Belani and Muennig [13] no NSP NSP Cost utility Societal Decision model 1 year Infection averted & QALYs
Wammes et al. [14] OST OST (coverage 5% to 40%) Cost effectiveness/cost analysis Societal Mathematical transmission model 20 year Infection averted
Guinness et al. [15] non intervention OST Cost utility Provider Mathematical model 3 year Infection averted & DALYs
Tran, Mills, et al. [16] non OST OST Cost utility Health service provider Real cohort data 9 month QALYs
Tran, Nguyen, et al. [17] non OST OST cost utility Vietnam health care system Decision analytical model 1 year Infection averted & QALYs
Tran, Ohinmaa, et al. [18] OST&ART OST Cost utility Vietnam health care system Decision tree monte carlo simulation 1 year Infection averted & QALYs
Connock et al.[12]** Buprenorphine OST (methadone vs buprenorphine) Cost utility NHS Markov monte carlo simulation 1 year QALYs
Degenhardt et al. [10] ART, NSP&OST&ART Combined (NSP&OST) Cost effectiveness   Transmission model 5 years Infection aveted
Alistar, Owens, and Brandeau [19] OST&ART ART alone OST Cost utility Provider dynamic compartmental model 20 year Infection averted & QALYs
Li et al. [20] ART, VCT Combined (NSP&OST) Cost utility   Mathematical 30 year Infection averted & QALYs
Van den berg et al.* [21] Methadone dose or NEP use alone Combined (NSP& OST)   Not stated Cohort study 20 years Incidence rate ratio
Kwon et al. [22] no NSP NSP Cost utility Health sector Mathematical model lifetime Infection averted & QALYs
Zhang et al. [23] no NSP NSP Cost utility Societal Mathematical model 7 years Infection averted & DALYs
1. †Systematic review.
2. *included in Jones et al. [11].
3. **Connock et al. [12] carried out a systematic review and a cost effectiveness analysis in one paper.