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Table 6 Costs and outcomes by type of CVR prevention

From: Changes in costs and effects after the implementation of disease management programs in the Netherlands: variability and determinants

  Primary prevention Secondary prevention Mixed
  Baseline Change Baseline Change Baseline Change
PACIC (1–5 highest) 2.64 (0.77) 0.18* (0.76) 2.52 (0.79) 0.09 (0.75) 2.92 (0.84) 0.10* (0.82)
Physically active days per week 5.25 (1.91) 0.43* (1.94) 5.15 (2.10) 0.12 (2.11) 4.91 (2.10) 0.37** (2.20)
% smokers 13 −3* 30 −8** 20 −6**
Self-efficacy (1–6 highest) 4.44 (0.85) −0.29** (0.75) 4.32 (0.92) −0.30** (0.77) 4.48 (0.86) −0.27** (0.74)
EQ-5D 0.85 (0.17) −0.01 (0.15) 0.77 (0.22) 0.01 (0.19) 0.84 (0.17) −0.02* (0.15)
Primary care costs 555 (827) −16 (701) 810 (1,153) −149 (1,191) 565 (751) 97 (1,092)
Outpatient hospital care 326 (662) −104 (643) 725 (1,342) −34 (1,728) 269 (492) 76* (657)
Inpatient hospital care$ 471 (3,009) −334 (3,120) 1,064 (5,012) 932 (9,807) 476 (3,085) 742 (10,225)
Medication costs 269 (275) 0 (248) 493 (423) 1 (289) 356 (351) 4 (255)
Total healthcare utilization costs 1,600 (3,665) −447 (3,663) 3052 (5,787) 754 (10,204) 1,653 (3,525) 918 (10,574)
Travelling costs 63 (145) 73 (571) 89 (221) −48* (185) 72 (226) −5* (312)
Productivity costs 3,542 (11,480) −1,685 (10,076) 1,119 (6,401) −86 (6,964) 1,405 (7,646) −368 (6,743)
Total costs 3,633 (10,091) −317 (11,593) 4,421 (10,657) 159 (13,876) 2,911 (8,201) 725 (13,874)
  1. The table presents the mean (SD) and the mean difference (SD) between baseline and follow-up measurements; $inpatient hospital care costs include also emergency care costs; *(p < 0.05); **(p < 0.01); the differences are calculated subtracting the costs at baseline from the costs at follow-up; primary care costs included contacts with GP, nurse practitioner, nurse, dietician, physiotherapist, podiatrist, lifestyle coach, etc.