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Table 3 Outcomes by disease at baseline and differences with the outcomes in the follow-up

From: Changes in costs and effects after the implementation of disease management programs in the Netherlands: variability and determinants

  CVR COPD DMII Total sample
  Mean at baseline (sd) Mean change (sd) Range of change across DMPs # Mean at baseline (sd) Mean change (sd) Range of change across DMPs # Mean at baseline (sd) Mean change (sd) Range of change across DMPs # Mean change Range of change across DMPs #
PACIC (1; 5 highest = best) 2.80 (0.84) 0.10** (0.80) +0.02; +0.26 2.92 (0.89) −0.03 (0.75) −0.05; +0.06 3.29 (0.85) −0.23* * (0.72) −0.27; − 0.18 0.01 (0.78) −0.27; +0.26
Physically active days per week 5.00 (2.07) 0.33** (2.15) −0.23; +0.82 4.82 (2.13) 0.37** (2.20) −0.11; +1.36 4.74 (1.94) 0.29 (2.01) +0.05; +0.89 0.34** (2.14) −0.23; +1.36
% smokers 21 −6 pp** −2.5 pp; −10.7 pp 39 −11 pp** −7.3 pp;-13.7 pp 22 −9 pp** −8 pp; −13.6 pp −8 pp** −13.7 pp; −2.5 pp
Self-efficacy (1; 6 highest = best) 4.45 (0.87) −0.28** (0.75) −0.33; − 0.15 4.33 (0.88) −0.34** (0.73) −0.48; −0.27 4.56 (0.85) −0.29** (0.77) −0.42; −0.22 −0.30** (0.75) −0.48; −0.15
EQ-5D (−0.33; 1 highest = best) 0.83 (0.18) −0.01* (0.16) −0.06; +0.03 0.79 (0.20) −0.04** (0.19) −0.04; − 0.03 0.84 (0.16) −0.03* (0.14) −0.04; −0.02 −0.02** (0.17) −0.06; +0.03
  1. pp = percentage points; *(p < 0.05); **(p < 0.01); the differences are calculated subtracting the outcome values at baseline from the outcome values at follow-up.