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Table 4 Mean one-year costs at baseline and 1 year follow-up (PPP-adjusted Euros, 2011 prices)

From: Cost-effectiveness of adherence therapy versus health education for people with schizophrenia: randomised controlled trial in four European countries

  Adherence therapy (n = 204) Health education (n = 205) Adherence therapy – Health education1
Valid n Mean (SD) Valid n Mean (SD) Unadjusted comparisons Baseline-adjusted comparisons
Mean difference 95% confidence interval Mean difference 95% confidence interval
Baseline
  Accommodation 204 5637 (13837) 205 6676 (16508) -1039 -4323, 1640 na na
  Inpatient services 204 13649 (30841) 205 12659 (27797) 990 -4440, 6253 na na
  Outpatient services 204 686 (2938) 205 314 (794) 372 30, 884 na na
  Community-based services 204 2973 (18688) 205 4532 (25686) -1559 -6200, 2912 na na
  Community-based professionals 204 998 (1370) 205 1088 (2797) -90 -555, 289 na na
  Medication 197 4400 (6387) 204 4103 (6405) 297 -1031, 1527 na na
  Subtotal from health/social care perspective 197 27427 (36015) 204 29484 (41535) -2057 -9916, 5882 na na
  Informal care 204 5300 (12230) 205 5461 (14533) -161 -2756, 2667 na na
  Time off work 202 1656 (7846) 204 1339 (6514) 316 -1190, 1631 na na
  Criminal justice system 204 442 (4524) 205 368 (4440) 74 -862, 1012 na na
  Sub-total for non-health/social care costs 202 7451 (14805) 204 7197 (16157) 253 -3093, 3273 na na
  Total from societal perspective 195 35190 (39442) 203 36828 (44573) -1638 -9801, 6719 na na
1 year follow-up
  Adherence therapy or health education intervention 204 192 (93) 205 138 (77) 54 37, 70   
  Accommodation 177 6112 (14523) 196 6504 (15953) -392 -3569, 2659 194 -1805, 2259
  Inpatient services 176 7411 (20737) 196 6976 (22574) 435 -4025, 4732 418 -3719, 4318
  Outpatient services 177 235 (832) 196 226 (613) 10 -137, 166 5 -144, 160
  Community-based services 177 1350 (5108) 196 3865 (29011) -2515 -7420, 589 -237 -2168, 1298
  Community-based professionals 177 1545 (6969) 195 1473 (6737) 72 -1267, 1405 76 -1324, 1411
  Medication 175 3202 (3942) 196 3549 (4737) -347 -1285, 585 -483 -1268, 322
  Subtotal from health/social care perspective, including intervention cost 174 20115 (28339) 195 22597 (40727) -2483 -10017, 4448 -757 -5820, 4386
  Subtotal from health/social care perspective, excluding intervention cost 174 19919 (28332) 195 22459 (40720) -2540 -10075, 4385 -816 -5877, 4331
  Informal care 177 4639 (17298) 194 2813 (6377) 1826 -634, 4602 1859 -611, 4532
  Time off work 176 423 (3541) 196 699 (4146) -277 -1043, 506 -320 -1063, 408
  Criminal justice system 177 40 (372) 196 978 (9963) -938 -2597, 46 -937 -2605, 46
  Sub-total for non-health/social care costs 176 5118 (17679) 194 4508 (12220) 610 -2282, 3881 596 -2451, 4000
  Total from societal perspective, including intervention cost 173 25346 (32406) 193 26787 (41743) -1442 -9722, 6213 10 -6915, 6235
  Total from societal perspective, excluding intervention cost 173 25149 (32404) 193 26648 (41737) -1499 -9774, 6153 -49 -6979, 6171
  1. 1. Based on bootstrapped linear regression of group upon cost (1000 repetitions).
  2. na = not applicable to baseline comparisons.